Protein/Related Articles

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A list of Citizendium articles, and planned articles, about Protein.
See also changes related to Protein, or pages that link to Protein or to this page or whose text contains "Protein".

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  • Acetylcholine receptor [r]: Nervous system cell surface proteins that bind acetylcholine and trigger intracellular changes. [e]
  • Acetylcholine [r]: A chemical transmitter in both the peripheral nervous system (PNS) and central nervous system (CNS) in many organisms including humans. [e]
  • Actin [r]: A globular protein that can polymerise to form microfilaments; essential for cell movement and muscle contraction. [e]
  • Adenine [r]: A base incorporated into DNA and RNA and part of an energy carrier, as ATP, in metabolism. [e]
  • Alanine [r]: The second smallest of the twenty common amino acids used by living organisms to build proteins. [e]
  • Alcohol [r]: A chemical compound that contains a hydroxy group (OH). [e]
  • Alzheimer's disease [r]: A degenerative disease of the brain characterized by the insidious onset of dementia; manifests itself in impairment of memory, judgment, attention span, and problem solving skills, followed by severe apraxias and a global loss of cognitive abilities. [e]
  • Amino acid [r]: Biochemical with an amino group, a carboxyl group, a hydrogen atom, and a side chain bonded to a central carbon. [e]
  • Antidepressant [r]: Mood-stimulating drugs used primarily in the treatment of affective disorders and related conditions. [e]
  • Antigen [r]: A molecule that induces an immune response, such as bee pollen or proteins from viruses or bacteria. [e]
  • Arginine vasopressin receptor 1B [r]: A protein that acts as receptor for arginine vasopressin, belonging to the subfamily of G-protein coupled cell surface receptors. [e]
  • Arginine [r]: A positively charged common amino acid, incorporated into proteins. [e]
  • Aromatase [r]: An enzyme which oxidizes two positions of steroids, converting testosterones into estrogens. [e]
  • Ascorbic acid [r]: An organic acid with antioxidant properties whose L-enantiomer is called vitamin C. [e]
  • Asparagine [r]: One of the twenty common amino acids used by living organisms to build proteins. It is neutral but polar. [e]
  • Aspartame [r]: An artificial sweetener widely known as NutriSweet®, commonly used in diet drinks and other low-calorie foods. [e]
  • Aspartic acid [r]: One of the common amino acids incorporated into proteins. It is charged, polar, and hydrophilic. [e]
  • Autonomic nervous system [r]: Neurones that are not under conscious control, comprising two antagonistic components, the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems. [e]
  • Bacterial cell structure [r]: Morphological and genetic features of unicellular prokaryotic organisms characterized by the lack of a membrane-bound nucleus and membrane-bound organelles. [e]
  • Bacteriophage experimental evolution [r]: Method of testing evolutionary theory under carefully designed, reproducible experiments using bacteriophages. [e]
  • Bacteriophage [r]: A virus that infects bacteria; often called a phage. [e]
  • Bacteriorhodopsin [r]: enzyme or trans-membrane protein existing in the cellular membrane of Halobacterium Salinarium and acting as a light-driven proton pump. potential applications in information technology, such as the use of biological molecules to encode, manipulate and retrieve information, allowing the development of organic memory circuits. [e]
  • Bee [r]: Flying insects of the order hymenoptera, closely related to wasps and ants. [e]
  • Biochemistry [r]: The chemistry of living things; a field of both biology and chemistry. [e]
  • Biology [r]: The science of life — of complex, self-organizing, information-processing systems living in the past, present or future. [e]
  • Biotechnology and plant breeding [r]: The use of microorganisms, such as bacteria or yeasts, or biological substances, such as enzymes, to improve plants and prevent plant diseases. [e]
  • Brining [r]: A process in which food is soaked in a salt solution (the brine) before cooking. [e]
  • Catabolism [r]: The metabolic process that breaks down molecules into smaller units. [e]
  • Cell (biology) [r]: The basic unit of life, consisting of biochemical networks enclosed by a membrane. [e]
  • Cell membrane [r]: The outer surface of a cell which encloses its contents. [e]
  • Cell surface receptor [r]: Proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell. [e]
  • Cheese [r]: Dairy product made from milk curd and widely eaten in the Western Hemisphere and Europe. [e]
  • Cinoxacin [r]: An antibiotic used to treat urinary tract infections caused by many aerobic, Gram-negative bacteria. [e]
  • Citric acid cycle [r]: A series of enzyme-catalysed chemical reactions of central importance in all living cells that use oxygen as part of cellular respiration. [e]
  • Connexin [r]: Family of structurally-related transmembrane proteins that assemble to form vertebrate gap junctions. [e]
  • Connexon [r]: Assembly of 6 proteins called connexins that forms a bridge called a gap junction between the cytoplasm of two adjacent cells. [e]
  • Cooking [r]: The act of using heat to prepare food for eating. Cooking may also be said to occur by certain cold-preparation methods. [e]
  • Cryobiology [r]: The study of living organisms, organs, biological tissues or biological cells at low temperatures. [e]
  • Crystal [r]: A solid in which the constituent atoms are arranged in an orderly, repeating pattern. [e]
  • Cysteine [r]: One of the twenty common amino acids and one of two that contains a sulfur atom. [e]
  • Cystine [r]: A molecular dimer formed by two molecules of cysteine, which are connected by a disulfide bond. [e]
  • DNA [r]: A macromolecule — chemically, a nucleic acid — that stores genetic information. [e]
  • Deuterium [r]: An isotope of the chemical element hydrogen containing one proton and one neutron. [e]
  • Diabetic neuropathy [r]: Negative effects on the nervous system that can be caused by diabetes mellitus, some of which may necessitate amputation. [e]
  • Digital object identifier [r]: Unique label for a computer readable object that can be found on the internet, usually used in academic journals. [e]
  • Dissociation constant [r]: A number quantifying the tendency of a molecular complex to dissociate into its separate parts. [e]
  • Drug discovery [r]: Process by which pharmaceuticals are discovered and/or designed. [e]
  • Ebola [r]: A virus that causes severe hemhorragic fever and often death, that is easily spread. [e]
  • Electrical synapse [r]: Anatomically specialized junction between two nerve cells at which an electrical current flows directly from one cell into the other. [e]
  • Enantiomer [r]: Chemical structure that has a nonsuperimposible mirror image of itself. [e]
  • Enzyme [r]: A protein that catalyzes (i.e. accelerate) chemical reactions. [e]
  • Evolution [r]: A change over time in the proportions of individual organisms differing genetically. [e]
  • Fatty acid metabolism [r]: Oxidative degradation of saturated fatty acids in which two-carbon units are sequentially removed from the molecule with each turn of the cycle, and metabolized so that it can be used as a source of energy in aerobic respiration. [e]
  • Fermentation (food) [r]: The conversion of nutrients to desired products, such as ethanol, acetic acid or acetone, using yeast, bacteria, or a combination thereof [e]
  • Genetic engineering [r]: The process of manipulating genes, usually outside the organism's normal reproductive process. [e]
  • Genetics [r]: The study of the inheritance of characteristics, genes and DNA. [e]
  • Gene [r]: The functional unit of heredity. [e]
  • Glutamic acid [r]: One of the 20 common amino acids and one of two acidic amino acids. [e]
  • Glutamine [r]: A polar, neutral amino acid, the amide version of glutamic acid. [e]
  • Glycine [r]: The smallest of the twenty common amino acids used by living organisms to build proteins. [e]
  • Golgi apparatus [r]: An organelle in eukaryotic cells that modifies many proteins and lipids from the endoplasmic reticulum; it is named after Camillo Golgi who discovered it in 1898. [e]
  • Guanine [r]: Natural biomolecule used as one of the five bases in RNA and DNA. [e]
  • HIV test [r]: Tests used to detect the presence of the human immunodeficiency virus in serum, saliva, or urine, to detect HIV antibodies, antigens, or RNA. [e]
  • Hemagglutination test [r]: Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. [e]
  • Hemeprotein [r]: Conjugated metalloprotein containing a metal-porphyrin compound as the prosthetic group. [e]
  • Histidine [r]: One of the twenty common α-amino acids used by living organisms to build proteins. [e]
  • Histine [r]: One of the common amino acids used in protein synthesis. [e]
  • Histone [r]: Proteins essential for packaging DNA into chromatin and a scaffold for methylation and acetylation modifications that are part of the chromatin code. [e]
  • Hormone [r]: A chemical director of biological activity that travels through some portion of the body as a messenger. [e]
  • Hydrogen bond [r]: A non-covalent and non-ionic chemical bond involving a hydrogen atom and either Fluorine, Nitrogen, or Oxygen. [e]
  • Immediate hypersensitivity [r]: Humoral reaction, mediated by the circulating B lymphocytes, which causes any of three responses: anaphylactic, cytotoxic, and immune system hypersensitivity. [e]
  • Immunoglobulin [r]: Proteins produced by lymphocytes, which are primarily antibodies to attack material the body considers hostile, although some may act as cytokines, signaling to other cells [e]
  • Immunology [r]: The study of all aspects of the immune system in all animals. [e]
  • Innexin [r]: Member of a class of proteins which is used to create gap junctions in invertebrates. [e]
  • Insulin [r]: Hormone that regulates blood glucose levels. [e]
  • Intelligent design [r]: Claim that fundamental features of the universe and living things are best explained by purposeful causation. [e]
  • Isoleucine [r]: One of the twenty common amino acids used by living organisms to build proteins. [e]
  • J. B. S. Haldane [r]: (1892-1964) One of the founders of theoretical population genetics and widely known for his work in enzyme kinetics. [e]
  • Japanese encephalitis virus [r]: Human viral infection epidemic in Japan, transmitted by the common house mosquito (Culex pipiens) and characterized by severe inflammation of the brain. [e]
  • Lactose [r]: Slightly sweet disaccharide composed of two monosaccharides, glucose and galactose linked together, and found in milk. [e]
  • Leucine [r]: An aliphatic, non-polar, hydrophobic amino acids incorporated into proteins. [e]
  • Life extension [r]: Medical and non-medical attempts to slow down or reverse the processes of aging, to extend both the maximum and average lifespan. [e]
  • Life [r]: Living systems, of which biologists seek the commonalities distinguishing them from nonliving systems. [e]
  • Liver [r]: A vital organ of humans and other vertebrates, it is the largest solid organ in the human body. [e]
  • Louis Pasteur [r]: (1822 - 1895) Disproved abiogenesis, the theory of spontaneous generation of microbes. [e]
  • Luteinising hormone [r]: Pituitary hormone with an essential role in reproduction in both males and females. [e]
  • Lymphocyte [r]: Leukocyte originating in lymphoid tissues, fundamental to the immune system, regulating and participating in acquired immunity, with receptor molecules on its surface that bind to a specific antigen. [e]
  • Lysine [r]: A positively charged amino acid used by living systems to build proteins. [e]
  • Macromolecular chemistry [r]: The study of the physical, biological and chemical structure, properties, composition, and reaction mechanisms of macromolecules. [e]
  • Macromolecules [r]: A large molecule exhibiting heavy molecular mass. [e]
  • Maize [r]: Cereal grain domesticated in Mesoamerica and subsequently spread throughout the world, and one of the most widely grown crops in the Americas. [e]
  • Marine biology [r]: The study of life in the seas and oceans. [e]
  • Materials MASINT [r]: A discipline involving the measurement of signatures from the collection, processing, and analysis of gas, liquid, or solid samples; it complements technical intelligence: a technical intelligence analyst would work with a captured example of the weapon, or at least pieces of it, to come to that understanding of the propellant, while an analyst of this technique would infer the propellant through analysis of the exhaust [e]
  • Medical informatics [r]: Science concerned with the analysis and dissemination of medical data through the application of computers to aspects of health care and medicine. [e]
  • Metabolism [r]: The modification of chemical substances by living organisms. [e]
  • Methionine [r]: One of two common amino acids used in proteins that contain a sulfur atom. [e]
  • Micro RNA [r]: Single-stranded RNA molecules of 21-23 nucleotides in length, which regulate gene expression. [e]
  • Microfilament [r]: Thinnest filaments of the cytoskeleton found in the cytoplasm of all eukaryotic cells. [e]
  • Microorganism [r]: A 'germ', an organism that is too small to be seen individually with the naked eye. [e]
  • Microsatellite [r]: Polymorphic loci present in nuclear and organellar DNA that consist of repeating units of 1-6 base pairs in length. [e]
  • Mobile DNA [r]: Blocks of DNA that are able to move and insert into new locations throughout the genome without needing DNA sequence similarity or requiring the process of homologous recombination to enable movement. [e]
  • Molecular structure of Nucleic Acids [r]: Article published by James D. Watson and Francis Crick in the scientific journal Nature in 1953, which first described the discovery of the double helix structure of DNA. [e]
  • Molecule [r]: An aggregate of two or more atoms in a definite arrangement held together by chemical bonds. [e]
  • Multiple sclerosis [r]: A chronic, inflammatory, demyelinating disease that affects the central nervous system (CNS). [e]
  • Mutation [r]: Changes to the DNA sequence that cause new genetic variation. [e]
  • NADPH [r]: A major reducing agent in biological systems. [e]
  • NMR spectroscopy [r]: The use of electromagnetic radiation, in the presence of a magnetic field, to obtain information regarding transitions between different nuclear spin states of the nuclei present in the sample of interest. [e]
  • Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine [r]: Award conferred once a year by the Swedish Karolinska Institute, for physiology or medicine, since 1901. [e]
  • Nobel Prize [r]: A prestigious annual prize awarded according to the will of Swedish chemist and entrepreneur Alfred Nobel in the categories Peace, Literature, Chemistry, Physiology or Medicine, and Physics. [e]
  • Obesity [r]: Excessive stores of body fat. [e]
  • Orch-OR [r]: A speculative theory of consciousness proposed in the mid-1990s by British theoretical physicist Sir Roger Penrose and American anesthesiologist Stuart Hameroff. [e]
  • Organic chemistry [r]: The scientific study of the structure, properties, composition, reactions, and preparation (by synthesis or by other means) of chemical compounds of carbon and hydrogen, which may contain any number of other elements. [e]
  • Organism [r]: An individual living individual: a complex, adaptive physical system that acts a integrated unit that sustains metabolism and reproduces progeny that resemble it. [e]
  • Oxytocin [r]: A mammalian hormone that is secreted into the bloodstream from the posterior pituitary gland, and which is also released into the brain where it has effects on social behaviors. [e]
  • PAFAH1B1 [r]: A human gene involved in lissencephaly, a neurodevelopmental disorder. [e]
  • PH [r]: A scale that measures the acidity or alkalinity of a solution, ranging from 0 (strongly acidic) to 14 (strongly alkaline). [e]
  • Pannexin [r]: Member of a vertebrate family of proteins homologous to the invertebrate innexins, present to form channels that allow release of ATP in erythrocytes and taste receptor cells. [e]
  • Parasympathetic nervous system [r]: Motor division of the autonomic nervous system, which has cholinergic nerve endings, which inhibits the heart, contracts the pupils, and produces a vagus-insulin axis of activity. [e]
  • Pathology [r]: The medical specialty that is expert in the use of laboratory methods to support clinicians in diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis [e]
  • Peptide hormone [r]: A class of chemical messengers, secreted into the blood from endocrine cells, that bind to specific receptors expressed on the plasma membrane of target cells. [e]
  • Phagocytosis [r]: That part of immune response in which defensive cells such as neutrophils and macrophages surround and "digest" foreign particles [e]
  • Phenylalanine [r]: An aromatic amino acid incorporated into proteins. [e]
  • Phosphate [r]: An inorganic chemical derived from a salt of phosphoric acid, and used in agriculture and industry. [e]
  • Pilus [r]: Hairlike appendage found on the surface of many Gram-negative bacteria, shorter, thinner and straighter than flagella. [e]
  • Pollen [r]: Fine to coarse powder consisting of microgametophytes, which produce the male gametes of seed plants. [e]
  • Pollination [r]: Process by which pollen is transferred in plants from the male reproductive organ (stamen or staminate cone) to the female reproductive organ (pistil or pistillate cone), thereby enabling fertilisation and sexual reproduction. [e]
  • Pollinator [r]: Biotic vector that moves pollen from the male anthers of a flower to the female stigma of a flower to accomplish fertilization or syngamy of the female gamete in the ovule of the flower by the male gamete from the pollen grain. [e]
  • Polymer [r]: A compound of high molecular weight derived either by the addition of many smaller, similar molecules (monomers), or by the condensation of many smaller, similar molecules eliminating water, alcohol, etc. [e]
  • Polypeptide [r]: Compound containing multiple amino acids linked into a chain by peptide bonda; they constitute the basic structure of proteins. [e]
  • Prion [r]: Simple proteins that do not contain any nucleic acid, thought to act as an infectious agent responsible for Creutzfeld-Jacob disease, kuru and possibly other degenerative diseases of the brain in humans, scrapie in sheep, and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). [e]
  • Proline [r]: A cyclic, non-polar amino acid used in proteins. [e]
  • Protein kinase [r]: A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of adenosine triphosphate and a protein to adenosine diphosphate and a phosphoprotein. [e]
  • Pseudomonas putida [r]: Gram-negative,rod-shaped, saprotrophic soil bacterium which demonstrates a very diverse metabolism, including the ability to degrade organic solvents such as toluene, and is used in bioremediation. [e]
  • RNA interference [r]: Process that inhibits the flow of genetic information to protein synthesis. [e]
  • RNA world hypothesis [r]: Proposes that a world filled with life based on ribonucleic acid (RNA) predated current life based on deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). [e]
  • RNA [r]: A polymer, made using the nucleotides of adenosine, guanosine, uridine and cytidine, that is used for a variety of biological functions in living systems. [e]
  • Reaction rate [r]: The amount of reactant or product that is formed or removed (in moles or mass units) per unit time per unit volume, in a particular reaction. [e]
  • Recombinant protein [r]: Protein encoded by recombinant DNA or generated from a recombinant gene. [e]
  • Redox modulation [r]: Changes in function that may occur in certain functional proteins, such as receptors, under physiological and pathological conditions, in response to changes in the balance of oxidants and antioxidants in the milieu of the protein. [e]
  • Rejuvenation (aging) [r]: Hypothetical reversal of the aging process, aiming to repair the damage that is associated with aging or replacement of damaged tissue with new tissue. [e]
  • Resting potential [r]: Potential difference between the two sides of the membrane of a nerve cell when the cell is not conducting an impulse, the resting potential for a neuron being between 50 and 100 millivolts. [e]
  • Retrotransposon [r]: Genetic elements that can amplify themselves in a genome with the use of reverse transcriptase, and are ubiquitous components of the DNA of many eukaryotic organisms. [e]
  • Salmonella enterica [r]: Rod shaped, flagellated, aerobic, Gram-negative bacterium that causes food poisoning and gastroenteritis. [e]
  • Serine [r]: One of three hydroxylated amino acids used in protein synthesis; subject to phosphorylation. [e]
  • Single-nucleotide polymorphism [r]: A DNA sequence variation across chromosomes within an individual or a species, involving only a single base change. [e]
  • Standard genetic code [r]: Correlation between RNA codons and protein amino acids. [e]
  • Synthetic biology [r]: The study of artificial life forms. [e]
  • Tequila [r]: An alcoholic beverage made from the distilled sap and heart of the Agave plant. [e]
  • Theoretical biology [r]: The study of biological systems by theoretical means. [e]
  • Thermal hysteresis [r]: A phenomenon in which a physical quantity depends not only on the temperature but also on the preceding thermal history. [e]
  • Threonine [r]: One of three hydroxylated amino acids in proteins; it may be phosphorylated [e]
  • Thromboplastin [r]: Reagant usually derived from placentas, used in the prothrombin time (PT time) assay, which measures the function of the extrinsic pathway of coagulation. [e]
  • Transposons as a genetic tool [r]: Semi-parasitic DNA sequences which can replicate and spread through the host's genome. [e]
  • Transposon [r]: Blocks of conserved DNA that can occasionally move to different positions within the chromosomes of a cell. [e]
  • Tryptophan [r]: One of four common aromatic amino acids in proteins. [e]
  • Tyrosine [r]: One of four common aromatic amino acids use in protein synthesis; it may be phosphorylated. [e]
  • University of Manchester [r]: Largest single higher education institution in the United Kingdom. [e]
  • Vaccine [r]: "suspensions of killed or attenuated microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa, or rickettsiae), antigenic proteins derived from them, or synthetic constructs, administered for the prevention, amelioration, or treatment of infectious and other diseases."(National Library of Medicine) [e]
  • Valine [r]: One of the twenty common amino acids used by living organisms to build proteins. It is aliphatic and non-polar. [e]
  • Vasopressin receptor [r]: Cell surface receptors to which vasopressins bind or interact in order to modify the function of the cells. Two types of vasopressin receptor exist, the V1 receptor in the vascular smooth muscle and the V2 receptor in the kidneys. [e]
  • Virology [r]: The study of viruses, sometimes included in the field of microbiology. [e]
  • Virus (biology) [r]: A microscopic particle that can infect the cells of a biological organism and can reproduce only with the assistance of the cells it infects. [e]
  • Vitalism [r]: The doctrine that the functioning of a living organism does not result from physical and chemical forces alone. [e]
  • Vitamin C [r]: Required by a few mammalian species, including humans and higher primates. It is water-soluble and is usually obtained by eating fruits and vegetables; associated with scurvy (hence its chemical name, ascorbic acid). [e]
  • Western blot [r]: Analytical technique used to detect specific proteins in a given sample of tissue homogenate or extract, using gel electrophoresis. [e]
  • Wheat [r]: Grass crop grown worldwide and used in making flour and fermentation for alcohol production. [e]
  • World Wheat Economy [r]: Macroeconomics studies of a nation's wheat trading system, in a global economy. [e]