From Citizendium, the Citizens' Compendium
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- Acetic acid : An organic acid, CH3CO2H, responsible for vinegar's tart taste and distinctive odor.
- Acetylcholine receptor : Nervous system cell surface proteins that bind acetylcholine and trigger intracellular changes.
- Acetylcholinesterase : An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of acetylcholine to choline and acetate, causing muscles, ennervated by cholinergic receptors, to relax
- Arcuate nucleus : An aggregation of neurons in the mediobasal hypothalamus with important roles in appetite regulation and in the control of growth hormone secretion and prolactin secretion.
- Biogenic amine receptor : Cell surface proteins that bind biogenic amines with high affinity and regulate intracellular signals which influence the behavior of cells.
- Borderline personality disorder : A personality disorder marked by a pattern of instability of interpersonal relationships, self-image, and affects, and marked impulsivity beginning by early adulthood and present in a variety of contexts. (National Library of Medicine)
- Brain : The core unit of a central nervous system.
- Cell surface receptor : Proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell.
- Chemical weapon : A weapon that cause death or disease by means of chemical interaction with the metabolism of the victim, as opposed to causing injury through blast, thermal, or other effects not on a molecular level
- Cholinergic antagonist : The medications "that bind to but do not activate cholinergic receptors, thereby blocking the actions of acetylcholine or cholinergic agonists."
- Cholinesterase inhibitor : Chemicals that block the action of the enzyme cholinesterase, which breaks down the neurotransmitter acetylcholine; continuous presence of acetylcholine causes continuous muscle contraction
- Clostridium tetani : Gram-positive, rod-shaped, anaerobic bacterium of the genus Clostridium, that produces a powerful toxin, tetanospasmin, that blocks inhibitory synapses in the central nervous system and thus causes the severe muscle spasms characteristic of tetanus.
- Coenzyme A : A coenzyme notable for its role in the synthesis and oxidization of fatty acids, and the oxidation of pyruvate in the citric acid cycle.
- Cyclic AMP : An adenine nucleotide that is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.
- Cyclic GMP : A guanine nucleotide that is a cellular regulatory agent and has been described as a second messenger. Its levels increase in response to a variety of hormones, including acetylcholine, insulin, and oxytocin and it has been found to activate specific protein kinases.
- List of organic compounds : Add brief definition or description
- Neurochemistry : A subfield of biology that focuses on the chemical makeup of the brain with a particular emphasis on the metabolism of neuroactive compounds like neurotransmitters.
- Neurotransmitter : A class of chemicals which relay, amplify or modulate electrical signals between a neuron and other cells in the nervous system.
- Snake venom : Highly modified toxic saliva containing hydrolithic enzymes, polypeptide complexs, nucleases, and peptidases, that is produced by special glands of certain species of snakes.
- Synapse : Contact point between neurons and other cells, crucial for nerve signalling
- Urinary incontinence : Involuntary loss of urine, such as leaking of urine; a symptom of various pathological processes.