Nobel Prize/Catalogs/Physiology or Medicine

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The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine is one of the five original Nobel Prizes founded by Alfred Nobel's will in 1901. It is awarded annually.

Nobel Laureates in Physiology or Medicine
Year Name Nation[1] Prize awarded for:
1901 Emil von Behring Germany work on serum therapy to treat diphtheria
1902 Ronald Ross United Kingdom research on malaria
1903 Niels Ryberg Finsen Denmark use of light radiation in the treatment of disease, particularly lupus vulgaris
1904 Ivan Petrovich Pavlov Russia work on the physiology of digestion
1905 Robert Koch Germany research on tuberculosis
1906 Camillo Golgi Italy work on the structure of the nervous system
Santiago Ramón y Cajal Spain
1907 Alphonse Laveran France research into protozoal diseases
1908 Ilya Ilyich Mechnikov Russia research on immunity
Paul Ehrlich Germany
1909 Theodor Kocher Switzerland work on the thyroid gland
1910 Albrecht Kossel Germany research in biochemistry
1911 Allvar Gullstrand Sweden research on the optics of the eye
1912 Alexis Carrel France work on vascular suture and transplantation of blood vessels
1913 Charles Richet France research into anaphylaxis
1914 Robert Bárány Austria research on the vestibular apparatus of the inner ear
1915 No award
1916 No award
1917 No award
1918 No award
1919 Jules Bordet Belgium discoveries relating to immunity
1920 August Krogh Denmark discovery of the capillary motor regulating mechanism
1921 No award
1922 Archibald Vivian Hill United Kingdom research on heat production in muscles
Otto Fritz Meyerhof Germany discovery of the relationship between oxygen consumption and lactic acid metabolism in muscle
1923 Frederick G. Banting[2] Canada discovery of insulin
John Macleod Canada
1924 Willem Einthoven Netherlands discovery of the mechanism of the electrocardiogram
1925 No award
1926 Johannes Fibiger Denmark discovery of Gongylonema neoplasticum, an helminthic parasite that induces gastric cancer
1927 Julius Wagner-Jauregg Austria the use of malaria inoculation in the treatment of general paralysis
1928 Charles Nicolle France work on typhus
1929 Christiaan Eijkman Netherlands discovery of antineuritic vitamin
Sir Frederick Hopkins United Kingdom discovery of growth-stimulating vitamins
1930 Karl Landsteiner Austria discovery of human blood groups
1931 Otto Warburg Germany discovery of the nature and mode of action of respiratory enzyme
1932 Sir Charles Sherrington United Kingdom work on the functions of neurons
Edgar Adrian United Kingdom
1933 Thomas H. Morgan United States of America discovering the role of chromosomes in heredity
1934 George H. Whipple United States of America work on liver therapy for anemia
George R. Minot United States of America
William P. Murphy United States of America
1935 Hans Spemann Germany discovery of the organizing center in embryonic development
1936 Sir Henry Dale United Kingdom work on the chemical transmission of nerve impulses
Otto Loewi Austria
1937 Albert von Szent-Györgyi Nagyrapolt Hungary work on the biochemistry of cell respiration, with special reference to vitamin C and fumaric acid
1938 Corneille Heymans Belgium discovery of the roles of the sinus and aorta in the regulation of respiration
1939 Gerhard Domagk Germany discovery of the antibacterial effects of the sulphonamide, Prontosil
1940 No award
1941 No award
1942 No award
1943 Henrik Dam Denmark discovery of vitamin K
Edward A. Doisy United States of America discovery of the chemical nature of vitamin K
1944 Joseph Erlanger United States of America work on the different types and functions of single nerve fibres
Herbert S. Gasser United States of America
1945 Sir Alexander Fleming United Kingdom discovery of penicillin and its properties in the cure of infectious diseases
Ernst B. Chain United Kingdom
Sir Howard Florey Australia
1946 Hermann J. Muller United States of America discovery that mutations can be induced by x-rays
1947 Carl Cori United States of America discovery of how glycogen is converted to glucose
Gerty Cori United States of America
Bernardo Houssay Argentina discovery of the part played by the hormone of the anterior pituitary lobe in the metabolism of sugar
1948 Paul Müller Switzerland discovery of the insecticide action of DDT
1949 Walter Hess Switzerland mapping the various functions of the midbrain
Egas Moniz Portugal discovery of the therapeutic effect of prefrontal lobotomy
1950 Edward C. Kendall United States of America discoveries relating to the hormones of the adrenal cortex, their structure and biological effects
Tadeus Reichstein Switzerland
Philip S. Hench United States of America
1951 Max Theiler South Africa developing a vaccine against yellow fever
1952 Selman A. Waksman United States of America discovery of streptomycin, the first antibiotic effective against tuberculosis
1953 Hans Krebs United Kingdom discovery of the citric acid cycle
Fritz Lipmann United States of America discovery and research on coenzyme A
1954 John F. Enders United States of America cultivation of poliomyelitis viruses in tissue culture
Thomas H. Weller United States of America
Frederick C. Robbins United States of America
1955 Hugo Theorell Sweden discoveries on the nature and mode of action of oxidation enzymes
1956 André F. Cournand United States of America development of heart catheterization and discoveries in cardiovascular pathologies
Werner Forssmann Germany
Dickinson W. Richards United States of America
1957 Daniel Bovet Italy discoveries relating to synthetic drugs, including antihistamines
1958 George Beadle United States of America discovery that genes act by regulating definite chemical events
Edward Tatum United States of America
Joshua Lederberg United States of America discoveries relating to genetic recombination and the organisation of genetic material in bacteria
1959 Severo Ochoa United States of America discovery of the mechanisms in the biological synthesis of the nucleic acids RNA and DNA
Arthur Kornberg United States of America
1960 Sir Frank Macfarlane Burnet Australia discovery of acquired immunological tolerance
Peter Medawar United Kingdom
1961 Georg von Békésy United States of America discovery of the physical mechanism of stimulation in the cochlea of the ear
1962 Francis Crick United Kingdom discovery of the molecular structure of deoxyribonucleic acid and its significance for information transfer in living material
James Watson United States of America
Maurice Wilkins United Kingdom / New Zealand
1963 Sir John Eccles Australia research into the ionic mechanism of nerve transmission
Alan L. Hodgkin United Kingdom
Andrew F. Huxley United Kingdom
1964 Konrad Bloch United States of America research on cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism
Feodor Lynen Germany
1965 François Jacob France research into the genetic control of enzyme and virus synthesis
André Lwoff France
Jacques Monod France
1966 Peyton Rous United States of America discovery of viruses that induce tumours
Charles B. Huggins United States of America discoveries relating to the hormonal treatment of prostate cancer
1967 Ragnar Granit Sweden research into the physiological and chemical mechanism of vision in the eye
Haldan K. Hartline United States of America
George Wald United States of America
1968 Robert W. Holley United States of America interpretation of the genetic code and its function protein synthesis
H. Gobind Khorana United States of America
Marshall W. Nirenberg United States of America
1969 Max Delbrück United States of America research into the replication mechanism and genetic structure of viruses"
Alfred D. Hershey United States of America
Salvador E. Luria United States of America
1970 Sir Bernard Katz United Kingdom work on neurotransmitters
Ulf von Euler Sweden
Julius Axelrod United States of America
1971 Earl W. Sutherland, Jr. United States of America research into the mechanisms of action of hormones, especially epinephrine via cyclic AMP
1972 Gerald M. Edelman United States of America discoveries in the chemical structure of antibodies
Rodney R. Porter United Kingdom
1973 Karl von Frisch Germany discoveries in the organisation and elicitation of individual and social behaviour patterns
Konrad Lorenz Austria
Nikolaas Tinbergen United Kingdom
1974 Albert Claude Belgium research into the structure and functional organisation of the cell
Christian de Duve Belgium
George E. Palade United States of America
1975 David Baltimore United States of America research into the interaction between tumour viruses and the genetic material of the cell
Renato Dulbecco United States of America
Howard M. Temin United States of America
1976 Baruch S. Blumberg United States of America research into new mechanisms for the origin and dissemination of infectious disease
D. Carleton Gajdusek United States of America
1977 Roger Guillemin United States of America work on peptide hormones produced in the brain"
Andrew V. Schally United States of America
Rosalyn Yalow United States of America development of radioimmunoassays for peptide hormones
1978 Werner Arber Switzerland discovery of restriction enzymes and their application to molecular biology
Daniel Nathans United States of America
Hamilton O. Smith United States of America
1979 Allan M. Cormack United States of America development of computer assisted tomography
Godfrey N. Hounsfield United Kingdom
1980 Baruj Benacerraf United States of America research into the genetically determined structures on the cell surface that regulate immunlogical reactions
Jean Dausset France
George D. Snell United States of America
1981 Roger W. Sperry United States of America research on the functional specialisation of the cerebral hemispheres
David H. Hubel United States of America work on information processing in the visual system
Torsten N. Wiesel Sweden
1982 Sune K. Bergström Sweden discoveries relating to prostaglandins
Bengt I. Samuelsson Sweden
John R. Vane United Kingdom
1983 Barbara McClintock United States of America discovery of mobile genetic elements
1984 Niels K. Jerne Denmark theories on the development and control of the immune system and the production of monoclonal antibodies
Georges J. F. Köhler Germany
César Milstein Argentina / United Kingdom
1985 Michael S. Brown United States of America research on the regulation of cholesterol metabolism
Joseph L. Goldstein United States of America
1986 Stanley Cohen United States of America discovery of growth factors
Rita Levi-Montalcini Italy/United States of America
1987 Susumu Tonegawa Japan discovery of the genetic principle of antibody diversity
1988 Sir James W. Black United Kingdom discoveries of important principles for drug treatment
Gertrude B. Elion United States of America
George H. Hitchings United States of America
1989 J. Michael Bishop United States of America discovery of the cellular origin of retroviral oncogenes
Harold E. Varmus United States of America
1990 Joseph E. Murray United States of America work on organ and cell transplantation
E. Donnall Thomas United States of America
1991 Erwin Neher Germany research on single ion channels in cells
Bert Sakmann Germany
1992 Edmond H. Fischer Switzerland/United States of America for discovering how phosphorylation of proteins is used to regulate biological processes
Edwin G. Krebs United States of America
1993 Richard J. Roberts United Kingdom discovery that genes in eukaryotes are not contiguous strings but contain introns, and that the splicing of messenger RNA to delete those introns can occur in different ways, yielding different proteins from the same DNA sequence
Phillip A. Sharp United States of America
1994 Alfred G. Gilman United States of America discovery of G proteins and their role in signal transduction in cells
Martin Rodbell United States of America
1995 Edward B. Lewis United States of America research into the genetic control of early embryonic development
Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard Germany
Eric F. Wieschaus United States of America
1996 Peter C. Doherty Australia research into the specificity of the cell-mediated immune defence
Rolf M. Zinkernagel Switzerland
1997 Stanley B. Prusiner United States of America discovery of prions
1998 Robert F. Furchgott United States of America elucidating nitric oxide's role as a signalling molecule in the cardiovascular system
Louis J. Ignarro United States of America
Ferid Murad United States of America
1999 Günter Blobel United States of America discovery that proteins have intrinsic signals that govern their transport and localization in the cell
2000 Arvid Carlsson Sweden discoveries relating to signal transduction in the nervous system
Paul Greengard United States of America
Eric R. Kandel United States of America
2001 Leland H. Hartwell United States of America discovery of cyclin and cyclin dependent kinase, central molecules in the regulation of the cell cycle
R. Timothy Hunt United Kingdom
Sir Paul M. Nurse United Kingdom
2002 Sydney Brenner United Kingdom research into the genetic regulation of organ development and programmed cell death
H. Robert Horvitz United States of America
John E. Sulston United Kingdom
2003 Paul C. Lauterbur United States of America discoveries concerning magnetic resonance imaging
Sir Peter Mansfield United Kingdom
2004 Richard Axel United States of America discovery of odorant receptors and the organization of the olfactory system
Linda B. Buck United States of America
2005 Barry J. Marshall Australia discovery of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori and its role in gastritis and peptic ulcer disease
J. Robin Warren Australia
2006 Andrew Z. Fire United States of America discovery of RNA interference - gene silencing by double-stranded RNA
Craig C. Mello United States of America
2007 Mario R. Capecchi United States of America discoveries of principles for introducing specific gene modifications in mice by the use of embryonic stem cells
Sir Martin J. Evans United Kingdom
Oliver Smithies United States of America


  1. As given by the Nobel Foundation at the time of the award, which is not necessarily the same as the location of research or birthplace.
  2. Banting shared his part of the prize with his co-worker Charles Best