Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine/Related Articles
From Citizendium, the Citizens' Compendium
Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine: Award conferred once a year by the Swedish Karolinska Institute, for physiology or medicine, since 1901.
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- Acetylcholine : A chemical transmitter in both the peripheral nervous system (PNS) and central nervous system (CNS) in many organisms including humans.
- Alfred Nobel : (October 21, 1833, Stockholm, Sweden – December 10, 1896, Sanremo, Italy) A Swedish chemist, engineer, innovator, armaments manufacturer and the inventor of dynamite.
- Anemia : A condition characterized by insufficient circulating and effective hemoglobin in blood to support normal physiology.
- Australia : Continent in the Southern Hemisphere and the federal parliamentary nation that occupies it.
- Austria : Federal republic in central Europe (population c. 8.2 million; capital Vienna), bordered to the north by Germany and the Czech Republic; to the south by Italy and Slovenia; to the west by Switzerland and Liechtenstein; and to the east by Hungary and Slovakia.
- Barbara McClintock : (1902 – 1992) - American cytogeneticist who won a Nobel Prize in 1983 for the discovery of genetic transposition.
- Chemistry : The science of matter, or of the electrical or electrostatical interactions of matter.
- Citric acid cycle : A series of enzyme-catalysed chemical reactions of central importance in all living cells that use oxygen as part of cellular respiration.
- DDT : An organochlorine pesticide that is very effective at killing mosquitoes and was used effectively in the fight against malaria.
- DNA : A macromolecule — chemically, a nucleic acid — that stores genetic information.
- Epinephrine : A hormone (adrenalin) adrenergic systems-stimulator used in asthma and cardiac failure.
- Eukaryote : An organism that is composed of one or more cells containing cell nuclei.
- France : Western European republic (population c. 64.1 million; capital Paris) extending across Europe from the English Channel in the north-west to the Mediterranean in the south-east; bounded by Belgium, Luxembourg, Germany, Switzerland, Italy, Monaco, Andorra and Spain; founding member of the European Union. Colonial power in Southeast Asia until 1954.
- Francis Crick : (1916-2004) British Nobel Prize-winning biochemist; co-discoverer of the helical structure of DNA.
- Gene : The functional unit of heredity.
- Glucose : A monosaccharide (or simple sugar) and an important carbohydrate in biology, used by the living cell as a source of energy and metabolic intermediate.
- Glycogen : Polysaccharide that is the main form of carbohydrate storage in animals and occurs primarily in the liver and muscle tissue.
- Helicobacter pylori : Gram-negative, urease-positive, microaerophilic bacterium that can inhabit various areas of the stomach and duodenum, and is strongly linked to the development of duodenal and gastric ulcers and stomach cancer.
- History of neuroimaging : The development of techniques allowing to visualize brain structure and function.
- Horizontal gene transfer in prokaryotes : Horizontal gene transfer (HGT; also called lateral gene transfer, LGT) is defined as movement of genes between different species, or across broad taxonomic categories. Prokaryotes are cells, such as bacteria, that do not have a nucleus enclosed by a nuclear membrae. Their DNA is in a region of the cell called the nucleiod, or nucleus-like material.
- Insecticide : A pesticide used against insects, in agriculture, medicine, industry and the household.
- Intron : Non-coding sequence of nucleic acid that is between the expressed sequences (exons) in a gene.
- Ion channel : Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for channel gating can be a membrane potential, drug, transmitter, cytoplasmic messenger, or a mechanical deformation.
- Julius Axelrod : (30 May 1912 – 29 December 2004) American biochemist whose work was influential in the development of pharmaceuticals.
- Koch's postulates : A set of principles, first published in 1890, which have proved to be useful, even when used with techniques never imagined by Koch, to establish causality between an organism and an infectious disease
- Maize : Cereal grain domesticated in Mesoamerica and subsequently spread throughout the world, and one of the most widely grown crops in the Americas.
- Malaria : A tropical infectious disease, caused by protozoa carried by mosquitoes, which is the world's worst insect vector-borne disease
- Mutation : Changes to the DNA sequence that cause new genetic variation.
- Nobel Prize : A prestigious annual prize awarded according to the will of Swedish chemist and entrepreneur Alfred Nobel in the categories Peace, Literature, Chemistry, Physiology or Medicine, and Physics.
- Peptic ulcer disease : Ulceration of the lining of the gastrointestinal tract that is usually acidic and thus extremely painful.
- Portugal : South-west European republic (population c. 10.7 million; capital Lisbon) on the western side of the Iberian Peninsula, with a long Atlantic coastline to its west and bordering Spain to the north and east.
- Prion : Simple proteins that do not contain any nucleic acid, thought to act as an infectious agent responsible for Creutzfeld-Jacob disease, kuru and possibly other degenerative diseases of the brain in humans, scrapie in sheep, and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE).
- Prostate cancer : Malignant tumour of glandular origin in the prostate, most presenting as adenocarcinomas.
- Protein : A polymer of amino acids; basic building block of living systems.
- RNA interference : Process that inhibits the flow of genetic information to protein synthesis.
- Restriction enzyme : Enzymes (proteins) that cut DNA at specific DNA base sequences, typically 4-6 base pairs in length.
- Stem cell : Describes cells that have the potential to differentiate to new cell types; usually encompasses totipotent, pluripotent and multipotent cells.
- Streptomycin : An antibiotic drug, produced by the actinomycete Streptomyces griseus, used to treat tuberculosis and other bacterial infections.
- Tuberculosis : Infectious disease of humans and animals caused by the tubercle bacillus and characterized by the formation of tubercles on the lungs and other tissues of the body.
- Vitamin K : It denotes a group of 2-methilo-naphthoquinone derivatives that acts as a lipid co-factor for hemostasis.