Cell surface receptor

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Cell surface receptors are "proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands."[1][2] Examples are neurotransmitters and biogenic amine receptors.

Classification

Mechanistic classes include:[3]

  1. Protein-tyrosine kinase receptor. There are 90 tyrosine kinases, of which 58 are cell receptors that are divided into 20 subfamilies.[4] Examples include the insulin receptor, ErbB-1 receptor, and ErbB-2 receptor (Human Epidermal growth factor Receptor 2, HER2, HER-2).
  2. Ion channel
  3. G-protein-coupled receptor. Examples include adrenergic receptors, angiotensin receptors, bradykinin receptors, CCR5 receptor (used by HIV to infect cells), and opioid receptors.

Examples

For links to more information, see: Cell surface receptor: Subtopics


References

  1. Alberts, Bruce (2007). Molecular Biology of the Cell. Other. ISBN 0-8153-4105-9. 
  2. Anonymous (2015), Cell surface receptors (English). Medical Subject Headings. U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  3. Katzung, Bertram G. (2006). Basic and clinical pharmacology. New York: McGraw-Hill Medical Publishing Division, 18. ISBN 0-07-145153-6. 
  4. Robinson DR, Wu YM, Lin SF (November 2000). "The protein tyrosine kinase family of the human genome". Oncogene 19 (49): 5548–57. DOI:10.1038/sj.onc.1203957. PMID 11114734. Research Blogging.

External links

International Union of Pharmacology Database