- East Asia : Region comprising China, Japan, North Korea, South Korea and Taiwan; also defined in cultural terms, with these nations historically or at present sharing writing systems, philosophical modes of thought, and other relationships (population about 1,600,000,000).
Japan consists of four large islands and thousands of smaller ones. While the sparsely-populated northern island of Hokkaido is its own prefecture (see below), others are split into smaller political and cultural regions.
- Honshu : (本州 Honshuu) largest of the islands of Japan, divided into five regions and including the cities of Tokyo, Kyoto, Osaka and Hiroshima; population about 103,000,000.
- Tohoku : (東北地方 Toohoku-chihoo), northerly region of Japan on Honshu island, divided into six prefectures and including the cities of Sendai and Akita; population about 9,500,000.
- Kanto : (関東地方 Kantoo-chihoo), region of Japan on Honshu island, divided into seven prefectures and including the capital, Tokyo; population about 41,650,000.
- Chubu : (中部地方 Chuubu-chihoo), region of Japan on Honshu island, divided into nine prefectures and including the city of Nagoya and Mount Fuji; population about 21,700,000.
- Kansai : (関西地方 Kansai-chihoo), region of Japan also known as Kinki (近畿地方 Kinki-chihoo) on Honshu island, divided into seven prefectures and including the cities of Kyoto and Osaka; population about 22,500,000.
- Chugoku : (中国地方 Chuugoku-chihoo), westerly region of Japan also known as San-in San-yo (山陰山陽地方 San-in San-yoo-chihoo) on Honshu island, divided into five prefectures and including the cities of Hiroshima and Okayama; population about 7,600,000.
- Hokkaido : (北海道 Hokkaidoo) second-largest and northernmost of the main islands of Japan, including the cities of Sapporo, Hakodate and Asahikawa; population about 5,500,000.
- Kyushu : (九州 Kyuushuu) third-largest and westernmost of the main islands of Japan, divided into seven regions and including the cities of Fukuoka, Nagasaki, Kumamoto and Kagoshima; population about 13,000,000.
- Ryukyu Islands : (南西諸島 Nansei Shotoo 'Southwest Islands') subtropical Japanese island chain in the East China Sea, east of Taiwan; divided between Okinawa and Kagoshima prefectures and home to the Ryukyuan languages and people.
- Shikoku : (四国) smallest and least populated of the four main islands of Japan, divided into four prefectures and including the cities of Takamatsu, Matsuyama, Tokushima and Uwajima; population about 4,000,000.
Administrative divisions or 'prefectures' of Japan are known as todōfuken (都道府県) in Japanese. Typically -ken (県) added to a place name indicates that it is a prefecture. Other regions are identified using -to (都 'metropolis', for Tokyo), -fu (府 'metropolitan prefecture', for Kyoto and Osaka) or -dō (道 'administrative region', used only in Hokkaido).
- Culture of Japan : Set of traditions, pastimes, artistic expression, use of language, belief systems and so on that distinguishes Japan from other nations.
- Japanese popular culture : Add brief definition or description
- Japanese media : Newspapers, magazines, television, radio and internet sites in Japan.
- Ainu people : Indigenous people of northern Japan and the Russian Far East.
- Okinawan people : Add brief definition or description
- Burakumin : Add brief definition or description
- Japanese residents of colonial descent : Japanese and non-Japanese citizens who trace their origins back to Japan's colonial period.
- Japanese language : (日本語 Nihongo), Japonic language spoken mostly in Japan; Japonic family's linguistic relationship to other tongues yet to be established, though Japanese may be related to Korean; written in a combination of Chinese-derived characters (漢字 kanji) and native hiragana (ひらがな) and katakana (カタカナ) scripts; about 125,000,000 native speakers worldwide.
- Ainu language : Endangered language of the Ainu people, spoken in parts of northern Japan and the Russian Far East.
- Ryukyuan languages : Add brief definition or description
- Japanese English : English as used by native speakers of Japanese, either for communicating with non-Japanese speakers or commercial and entertainment purposes. Includes vocabulary and usages not found in the native English-speaking world.