Upstream, midstream and downstream (petroleum industry)/Related Articles
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- Engineering : The profession in which a knowledge of the mathematical and natural sciences gained by study, experience and practice is applied with judgment to develop ways to economically use the materials and forces of nature for the benefit of mankind.
- Chemical engineering : The field of engineering that deals with industrial and natural processes involving the chemical, physical or biological transformation of matter or energy into forms useful for mankind, economically and safely without compromising the environment
- Chemistry : The science of matter, or of the electrical or electrostatical interactions of matter.
- Petroleum crude oil : A naturally occurring, flammable liquid found primarily in underground geological formations and consists of a complex mixture of hydrocarbons of various molecular weights plus other organic compounds.
- Natural gas : A gas consisting primarily of methane (CH4) which is found as raw natural gas in underground reservoirs, as gas associated with underground reservoirs of petroleum crude oil, as undersea methane hydrates and as coalbed methane in underground coal mines.
- Asphalt (petroleum) : A sticky, black and highly viscous liquid or semi-solid that is present in most petroleum crude oils and in some natural deposits.
- Catalytic reforming : A catalytic chemical process that converts petroleum naphthas into high-octane gasoline components.
- Claus process : A catalytic chemical process for converting gaseous hydrogen sulfide into elemental sulfur.
- Delayed coking : A petroleum refining process that converts heavy residual oils into petroleum coke and other byproducts.
- Fluid catalytic cracking : A petroleum refining process that cracks the large hydrocarbon molecules in the portion of the petroleum crude oil boiling above 340 °C into lower boiling, more valuable high octane gasoline and olefinic gases.
- Gasoline : A fuel for spark-ignited internal combustion engines derived from petroleum crude oil.
- Hydrodesulfurization : A catalytic chemical process used in petroleum refining to remove sulfur compounds from intermediate and refined end-products.
- Natural gas condensate : A low-boiling mixture of hydrocarbon liquids that are present as gaseous components in the raw natural gas produced from many natural gas production fields.
- Natural gas processing : Industrial facilities that process raw natural gas to remove contaminants as well as to separate out and recover by product natural gas liquids.
- Petrochemicals : Chemical products made from the hydrocarbons present in raw natural gas and petroleum crude oil.
- Petroleum naphtha : An intermediate hydrocarbon liquid stream derived from the refining of petroleum crude oil and which may be further processed to obtain a gasoline blending component.
- Petroleum refining processes : The chemical engineering processes used in petroleum refining.
- Refineries : Industrial manufacturing facilities composed of a group of chemical engineering unit processes and unit operations used for the conversion certain raw materials such as petroleum crude oil, mined ores, sugar or salt into finished products of value or for the refining and purification of partially converted raw materials into finished products.
- Sulfur : A yellowish crystalline chemical element with the symbol S and the atomic number of 16.
- Vacuum distillation : The laboratory or industrial-scale distillation of liquids performed at a pressure lower than atmospheric pressure.
- Visbreaking : A chemical engineering process unit used in petroleum refineries that reduces the viscosity of the residual oil from the refinery's atmospheric or vacuum distillation of petroleum crude oil.