Organism/Related Articles

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A list of Citizendium articles, and planned articles, about Organism.
See also changes related to Organism, or pages that link to Organism or to this page or whose text contains "Organism".

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  • Adaptation [r]: Describes the event of a trait being selected by the mechanism of natural selection. [e]
  • Aerobic organism [r]: An organism that has an oxygen-based metabolism. [e]
  • Amanita muscaria [r]: A psychoactive fungus (mushroom) commonly known as the fly agaric. [e]
  • Amino acid [r]: Biochemical with an amino group, a carboxyl group, a hydrogen atom, and a side chain bonded to a central carbon. [e]
  • Anabolism [r]: Biological processes that build larger molecules from smaller ones, and increase the size of bones, organs and muscles. [e]
  • Animalia [r]: The taxonomic kingdom including all animals. [e]
  • Animal [r]: A multicellular organism that feeds on other organisms, and is distinguished from plants, fungi, and unicellular organisms. [e]
  • Anise [r]: Annual herbaceous plant in the Apiaceae family that produces oil-rich fruits that have a distinct licorice taste. [e]
  • Antarctica [r]: The Earth's southernmost continent, located almost entirely south of the Antarctic Circle; covers the South Pole. [e]
  • Antibiotic resistance [r]: The development of resistance to an antibiotic in an organism originally susceptible to it [e]
  • Antigen [r]: A molecule that induces an immune response, such as bee pollen or proteins from viruses or bacteria. [e]
  • Antonie van Leeuwenhoek [r]: (1632 - 1723) Dutch scientist who discovered single-celled organisms. [e]
  • Archaea [r]: A major group of numerous microorganisms fundamentally different from the bacteria and including many chemolithotrophs and extremophiles. [e]
  • Arthropoda [r]: Phylum which includes insects, crustaceans, and organisms with a hard shell-like segmented body. [e]
  • Asexual reproduction [r]: Forms of biological reproduction that do not require a prior fusion of sexually differentiated cells [e]
  • Asian elephant [r]: Elephants found in the forests of south and southeast Asia. [e]
  • Atmosphere [r]: The layers of gas surrounding stars and planets. [e]
  • Autoclave [r]: A device that applies both heat and pressure to sterilize equipment, food or liquids. [e]
  • Bacillus anthracis [r]: The bacterium that causes anthrax. It is a Select Agent and a high-risk biological weapon. [e]
  • Bacterial cell structure [r]: Morphological and genetic features of unicellular prokaryotic organisms characterized by the lack of a membrane-bound nucleus and membrane-bound organelles. [e]
  • Bacteria [r]: A major group of single-celled microorganisms. [e]
  • Bee [r]: Flying insects of the order hymenoptera, closely related to wasps and ants. [e]
  • Behavior [r]: The actions or reactions of an object or organism, usually in relation to a stimulus or its environment. [e]
  • Biodiversity [r]: The study of the range of life forms in a given ecosystem. [e]
  • Biology [r]: The science of life — of complex, self-organizing, information-processing systems living in the past, present or future. [e]
  • Biophysics [r]: The study of forces and energies in biological systems. [e]
  • Biotechnology [r]: The application of biological principles in industrial production [e]
  • Bread [r]: A kind of food made from heated dough. [e]
  • Carbohydrate metabolism [r]: The various biochemical processes responsible for the formation, breakdown and interconversion of carbohydrates in living organisms. [e]
  • Cell (biology) [r]: The basic unit of life, consisting of biochemical networks enclosed by a membrane. [e]
  • Chemistry [r]: The science of matter, or of the electrical or electrostatical interactions of matter. [e]
  • Chemoton [r]: An abstract model for life introduced by Tibor Gánti in 1971 defining the minimal model of a living organism. [e]
  • Cloning [r]: The generation of genetically identical organisms, using cells derived from an original cell by fission (one cell dividing into two cells) or by mitosis (cell nucleus division with each chromosome splitting into two). [e]
  • Cobalt [r]: A hard, lustrous, grey metal, a chemical element with symbol Co and atomic number 27. [e]
  • Cold hardiness [r]: The ability of an organism to survive temperatures below the melting point of water, i.e. at 0°C or less (at sea level). [e]
  • Cryobiology [r]: The study of living organisms, organs, biological tissues or biological cells at low temperatures. [e]
  • Cryogenics [r]: The study of the production and behaviour of materials at very low temperature (below –150 °C, –238 °F or 123 K). [e]
  • Cryopreservation [r]: A process where cells or whole tissues are preserved by cooling to low sub-zero temperatures. [e]
  • DNA [r]: A macromolecule — chemically, a nucleic acid — that stores genetic information. [e]
  • Database [r]: A collection of computer-readable records, at one or more location, that are organized in some meaningful way beyond simple sequence of creation [e]
  • Death [r]: State of thermodynamic equilibrium achieved after the end of life. [e]
  • Decontamination [r]: The efforts to safeguard property and people that have been exposed to chemical, nuclear, or biological agents. [e]
  • Digital object identifier [r]: Unique label for a computer readable object that can be found on the internet, usually used in academic journals. [e]
  • Dog [r]: Domesticated canine often kept as a pet or as a working animal and known as 'man's best friend'. [e]
  • Domestication [r]: The process of habituating wild animals or plants to live in association with humans, thereby providing us with food, livestock and pets. [e]
  • Drug [r]: Substance taken to alter bodily functions, to relieve symptoms, cure or prevent disease, or to cause euphoria. [e]
  • Ecological footprint [r]: The sum of all resource-using or waste-producing activities of a biological unit, if converted to units of biologically productive land. [e]
  • Ecology [r]: The study of the distribution and abundance of organisms and how they are affected by the environment. [e]
  • Ecosystem [r]: A space in which multiple biological species interact. [e]
  • Eukaryote [r]: An organism that is composed of one or more cells containing cell nuclei. [e]
  • Evolution of cells [r]: The birth of cells marked the passage from pre-biotic chemistry to partitioned units resembling modern cells. [e]
  • Evolutionary psychology [r]: The comparative study of the nervous system and its relation to behaviour across species. [e]
  • Evolution [r]: A change over time in the proportions of individual organisms differing genetically. [e]
  • Facultative anaerobic organism [r]: An organism, usually a bacterium, that makes ATP by aerobic respiration if oxygen is present but is also capable of switching to fermentation under anaerobic conditions. [e]
  • Fermentation (food) [r]: The conversion of nutrients to desired products, such as ethanol, acetic acid or acetone, using yeast, bacteria, or a combination thereof [e]
  • Fern [r]: are a group of seedless vascular plants that make up the class Pteropsida, closely allied to horsetails and whisk ferns, also considered to be ferns, with which form the division Pterophyta, that evolved in the Devonian period comprising about 12,000 species. [e]
  • Food web [r]: Complex of interrelated food chains in an ecological community. [e]
  • Fungus [r]: A eukaryotic organism, classified into the kingdom Fungi, that is heterotrophic and digest their food externally, and may be a yeast, mold, or mushroom. [e]
  • Genetic engineering [r]: The process of manipulating genes, usually outside the organism's normal reproductive process. [e]
  • Genetics [r]: The study of the inheritance of characteristics, genes and DNA. [e]
  • Gene [r]: The functional unit of heredity. [e]
  • Genus (biology) [r]: A taxonomic unit above species and below family. [e]
  • Geomicrobiology [r]: Study of microbes within inorganic environments, such as sedimentary rocks and aquifers. [e]
  • Geophysics [r]: The study of the Earth by quantitative physical methods, namely seismic, magnetic, electrical, electromagnetic, thermal and radioactivity methods. [e]
  • Germ cell [r]: A kind of cell that is part of the germline, and is involved in the reproduction of organisms. [e]
  • Germ theory of disease [r]: A theory that proposes that microorganisms are the cause of many diseases. [e]
  • Ginkgo [r]: Dioecious tree, commonly known as the maidenhair tree (Ginkgo biloba), that is native to China and is cultivated as a shade tree, and is regarded as a living fossil. [e]
  • Glucose [r]: A monosaccharide (or simple sugar) and an important carbohydrate in biology, used by the living cell as a source of energy and metabolic intermediate. [e]
  • Glycogenesis [r]: Conversion of glucose to glycogen, in which glucose molecules are added to chains of glycogen for storage, which is stimulated by insulin from the pancreas. [e]
  • Glycogenolysis [r]: Breakdown conversion of glycogen to glucose, which occurs in the liver and is stimulated by glucagon from the pancreas and adrenaline from the adrenal medulla. [e]
  • Glycogen [r]: Polysaccharide that is the main form of carbohydrate storage in animals and occurs primarily in the liver and muscle tissue. [e]
  • Glyoxylate cycle [r]: Metabolic pathway in some orgnaisms which uses acetyl CoAs to synthesize carbohydrates. [e]
  • Golgi apparatus [r]: An organelle in eukaryotic cells that modifies many proteins and lipids from the endoplasmic reticulum; it is named after Camillo Golgi who discovered it in 1898. [e]
  • Health [r]: The default state of an organism under optimal conditions, a state characterized by the absence of disease and by the slowest natural rate of senescing. [e]
  • Horizontal gene transfer [r]: Transfer of genetic material to a being other than one of the donor's offspring. [e]
  • Hormesis [r]: A quantitative and qualitative dose-response relationship in which the effect at low concentrations occurs in the opposite direction from that expected from the effect observed at higher concentrations. [e]
  • Immunology [r]: The study of all aspects of the immune system in all animals. [e]
  • Infection [r]: Invasion and multiplication of microorganisms in body tissues, especially that causing local cellular injury due to competitive metabolism, toxins, intracellular replication or antigen–antibody response. [e]
  • Kidney [r]: Organs in the dorsal region of the vertebrate abdominal cavity, functioning to maintain proper water and electrolyte balance, regulate acid-base concentration, and filter the blood of metabolic wastes, which are then excreted as urine. [e]
  • Kingdom (biology) [r]: The second highest level taxon of organisms in scientific classification and biological taxonomy. [e]
  • Kingdom (disambiguation) [r]: Add brief definition or description
  • Koch's postulates [r]: A set of principles, first published in 1890, which have proved to be useful, even when used with techniques never imagined by Koch, to establish causality between an organism and an infectious disease [e]
  • Land [r]: a factor of production that is not the product of economic activity, the supply of which is independent of economic activity. [e]
  • Life [r]: Living systems, of which biologists seek the commonalities distinguishing them from nonliving systems. [e]
  • List of important publications in biology [r]: Add brief definition or description
  • Magnaporthe grisea [r]: Plant-pathogenic ascomycete fungus that causes blast disease or blight disease, in cereal crops including wheat, rye, barley, pearl millet, and rice. [e]
  • Malaria [r]: A tropical infectious disease, caused by protozoa carried by mosquitoes, which is the world's worst insect vector-borne disease [e]
  • Mammal [r]: A warm-blooded animal with a backbone which also has hair, and produces milk to feed its young. [e]
  • Mars (planet) [r]: The fourth planet from the Sun in our solar system; named after the Roman god of war; also known as the "Red Planet". [e]
  • Metabolism [r]: The modification of chemical substances by living organisms. [e]
  • Microbiology [r]: The study of microorganisms (overlapping with areas of virology, bacteriology, mycology, and parasitology). [e]
  • Microorganism [r]: A 'germ', an organism that is too small to be seen individually with the naked eye. [e]
  • Microsatellite [r]: Polymorphic loci present in nuclear and organellar DNA that consist of repeating units of 1-6 base pairs in length. [e]
  • Microsporum canis [r]: Fungus that causes dermatophytosis (ringworm) in dogs and cats. [e]
  • Mitochondrion [r]: Structure, function, life cycle and evolutionary theories involving the origins and role of the mitochondrion. [e]
  • Molecular structure of Nucleic Acids [r]: Article published by James D. Watson and Francis Crick in the scientific journal Nature in 1953, which first described the discovery of the double helix structure of DNA. [e]
  • Molecule [r]: An aggregate of two or more atoms in a definite arrangement held together by chemical bonds. [e]
  • Moss [r]: A non-vascular plant that only reproduces in water. [e]
  • Multicellular organism [r]: Organism consisting of more than one cell, and having differentiated cells that perform specialized functions in the organism. [e]
  • Natural selection [r]: The differential survival and/or reproduction of classes of entities that differ in one or more characteristics [e]
  • Nervous system [r]: The control unit of bodily functions in animals. [e]
  • Oregon [r]: State in the north west of the United States of America. [e]
  • Organelle [r]: Specialized subunit within a cell that has a specific function, and is usually separately enclosed within its own lipid membrane, found in all eukaryotic cells. [e]
  • PH [r]: A scale that measures the acidity or alkalinity of a solution, ranging from 0 (strongly acidic) to 14 (strongly alkaline). [e]
  • Pathogen [r]: The organism that causes an infectious disease [e]
  • Pet [r]: Particularly cherished or indulged companion animal. [e]
  • Photosynthesis [r]: The process by which an organism captures and stores energy from sunlight, energy it uses to power its cellular activities. [e]
  • Plant (disambiguation) [r]: Add brief definition or description
  • Plant (organism) [r]: A eukaryotic organism, grouped into the kingdom Plantae, that typically synthesizes nutrients through photosynthesis and possesses the inability to voluntarily move. [e]
  • Prokaryote [r]: Single celled organism with no membrane-bound organelles. [e]
  • Protein [r]: A polymer of amino acids; basic building block of living systems. [e]
  • Protist [r]: A unicellular organism grouped into the kingdom Protista that may have characteristics of plants and/or animals. [e]
  • Psychology [r]: The study of systemic properties of the brain and their relation to behaviour. [e]
  • Quorum sensing [r]: Ability of populations of bacteria to communicate and coordinate their behavior via inter-cellular and inter-species signaling molecules. [e]
  • Regnum [r]: Add brief definition or description
  • Rejuvenation (aging) [r]: Hypothetical reversal of the aging process, aiming to repair the damage that is associated with aging or replacement of damaged tissue with new tissue. [e]
  • Sex-determination system [r]: A biological process that determines the development of sexual gender. [e]
  • Skin [r]: Membranous protective tissue forming the external covering or integument of an animal and consisting in vertebrates of the epidermis and dermis, and capable of receiving external sensory stimuli. [e]
  • Solar system [r]: The sun and the planets orbiting it. [e]
  • Species (biology) [r]: A fundamental unit of biological classification - a set of individual organisms that produce fertile offspring. [e]
  • Sri Aurobindo [r]: (1872–1950) Influential Indian philosopher, yogin and nationalist, developer of Integral consciousness theory and the Integral movement. [e]
  • Taxonomy of Archaea domain [r]: Is a taxonomic list of Archaea domain based on Garrity et al. (2007) and Euzeby (2008). [e]
  • Taxon [r]: Any group or rank categorised in the classification of organisms, e.g., class, order, family. [e]
  • The Origin of Species [r]: 1859 book by Charles Darwin expounding the theory of evolution through natural selection [e]
  • Transposon [r]: Blocks of conserved DNA that can occasionally move to different positions within the chromosomes of a cell. [e]
  • Virology [r]: The study of viruses, sometimes included in the field of microbiology. [e]
  • Virus (biology) [r]: A microscopic particle that can infect the cells of a biological organism and can reproduce only with the assistance of the cells it infects. [e]
  • Weed [r]: Plant that is considered to be a nuisance, and normally applied to unwanted plants in human-made settings such as gardens, lawns or agricultural areas, but also in parks, woods and other natural areas. [e]
  • Wine [r]: Alcoholic drink made by fermented grapes [e]