From Citizendium, the Citizens' Compendium
- Biology : The science of life — of complex, self-organizing, information-processing systems living in the past, present or future.
- Life : Living systems, of which biologists seek the commonalities distinguishing them from nonliving systems.
- Cell (biology) : The basic unit of life, consisting of biochemical networks enclosed by a membrane.
- Genetics : The study of the inheritance of characteristics, genes and DNA.
- Exon : Add brief definition or description
- Intron : Non-coding sequence of nucleic acid that is between the expressed sequences (exons) in a gene.
- Promotor : Add brief definition or description
- Transposon : Blocks of conserved DNA that can occasionally move to different positions within the chromosomes of a cell.
- Transposons as a genetic tool : Semi-parasitic DNA sequences which can replicate and spread through the host's genome.
- Gene duplication : The incorporation of the same gene into different parts of the genome of an organism.
- Gene flow : The movement of genetic alleles from one population to another. If there is a low gene flow between two populations they may become distinct species.
- Genetic engineering : The process of manipulating genes, usually outside the organism's normal reproductive process.
- Genotype : Genetic makeup, as distinguished from the physical appearance, of an organism or a group of organisms, based on a combination of alleles located on homologous chromosomes that determines a specific characteristic or trait.
- Transgenic plant : Plants that have been genetically modified by inserting genes directly into a single plant cell, from a different species.
- Nucleic acid : A class of macromolecules important in conveying genetic information.
- Chromosome : A compact body of ribonucleic acid wrapped around proteins that is the unit in which genetic material is distributed during cell division.
- Chromosome band : A striped pattern observed on stained chromosomes.
- Endosymbiotic theory : Theory on the origins of mitochondria and plastids (e.g. chloroplasts), which are organelles of eukaryotic cells.
- Epigenetics : Modifications in a gene's activity, expression, and/or regulation that do not involve changes to the DNA sequence. It is possible for such differences to be inherited from one generation to the next.
- Evolution : A change over time in the proportions of individual organisms differing genetically.
- Hemochromatosis : Hereditary disorder affecting iron metabolism in which excessive amounts of iron accumulate in the body tissues, characterized by diabetes mellitus, liver dysfunction, and a bronze pigmentation of the skin.
- Heterosis : An observable phenomenon in which hybrid plants or animals may exhibit greater yields, health or faster rate of growth than their inbred parents.
- Model organism : Species often used in research as models for the study of biological processes.
- Molecular structure of Nucleic Acids : Article published by James D. Watson and Francis Crick in the scientific journal Nature in 1953, which first described the discovery of the double helix structure of DNA.
- Mutation : Changes to the DNA sequence that cause new genetic variation.
- Organism : An individual living individual: a complex, adaptive physical system that acts a integrated unit that sustains metabolism and reproduces progeny that resemble it.
- Prokaryote phylogeny and evolution : History of the origins of prokaryotes and the evolutionary processes that have affected bacteria.
- Protein : A polymer of amino acids; basic building block of living systems.
- Sex-determination system : A biological process that determines the development of sexual gender.
- Single-nucleotide polymorphism : A DNA sequence variation across chromosomes within an individual or a species, involving only a single base change.
- Targeted gene replacement : Technique in which cloned DNA is introduced into mammalian stem cell culture, via gene modification in vitro.
- Virus (biology) : A microscopic particle that can infect the cells of a biological organism and can reproduce only with the assistance of the cells it infects.