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Biology/Related Articles

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A list of Citizendium articles, and planned articles, about Biology.
See also changes related to Biology, or pages that link to Biology or to this page or whose text contains "Biology".

Contents

Parent topics

  • Science [r]: The organized body of knowledge based on non–trivial refutable concepts that can be verified or rejected on the base of observation and experimentation [e]

Subtopics

Subdisciplines

History of biology

Techniques

Other related topics

General

Tree of life

Classification of man

The cell

Ecology

Conservation

Evolution

  • Natural selection [r]: The differential survival and/or reproduction of classes of entities that differ in one or more characteristics [e]
  • Genetic drift [r]: Describes how some alleles either increase or decrease in a population due to chance events. [e]
  • Sexual selection [r]: A type of natural selection due to within-sex competition for successful mating. [e]
  • Speciation [r]: An event that produces two lineages that become separate species. [e]
  • Mutation [r]: Changes to the DNA sequence that cause new genetic variation. [e]
  • Gene flow [r]: The movement of genetic alleles from one population to another. If there is a low gene flow between two populations they may become distinct species. [e]

Development

Life cycle

Biochemistry

  • DNA [r]: A macromolecule — chemically, a nucleic acid — that stores genetic information. [e]
  • RNA [r]: A polymer, made using the nucleotides of adenosine, guanosine, uridine and cytidine, that is used for a variety of biological functions in living systems. [e]
  • Protein [r]: A polymer of amino acids; basic building block of living systems. [e]
  • Enzyme [r]: A protein that catalyzes (i.e. accelerate) chemical reactions. [e]
  • Protein folding [r]: The physical process by which a polypeptide folds into its characteristic and functional three-dimensional structure from random coil. [e]
  • Carbohydrate [r]: Organic compounds containing carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen; includes sugars and starches that provide energy to living organisms and form an important part of the diet of most animals. [e]
  • Lipid [r]: Group of organic compounds, including the fats, oils, waxes, sterols, and triglycerides, that are insoluble in water but soluble in nonpolar organic solvents, and together with carbohydrates and proteins constitute the principal structural material of living cells. [e]
  • Glycolysis [r]: A biochemical pathway by which a molecule of glucose is oxidized to two molecules of pyruvate. [e]
  • Citric acid cycle [r]: A series of enzyme-catalysed chemical reactions of central importance in all living cells that use oxygen as part of cellular respiration. [e]
  • Electron transport chain [r]: (ETC) A series of biochemical reactions that couple a chemical reaction between an electron donor and an electron acceptor to the transfer of protons across a membrane. [e]
  • Oxidative phosphorylation [r]: A process in which ATP is formed by coupling the transfer of electrons through a series of electron carriers to proton gradients across a biological membrane; most frequently associated mitochondria and their role in aerobic respiration. [e]
  • Photosynthesis [r]: The process by which an organism captures and stores energy from sunlight, energy it uses to power its cellular activities. [e]
  • Protein structure [r]: The structure of a protein, consisting of primary, secondary and tertiary structures. [e]

Genetics

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