In cells, genes encoded in DNA are transcribed into messenger RNA (mRNA). The mRNA can then be translated into an amino acid chain called a polypeptide (after the peptide bond connecting the amino acids). From here, the polypeptide must find and adopt a 3-dimensional conformation.
History of Protein Folding as a Field
C. Anfinsen. K. Dill. Etc.
Hydrophobic Collapse. Nucleation-condensation. Viscosity-Collision. Etc.
Folding Funnel/Energy Landscapes. Etc.
Chaperones make up a unique class of proteins which can aid in the proper folding of other proteins. For more information, see Chaperone proteins.
Related Diseases and Disorders
Alzheimer's. Prion disease(s). Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease). Parkinson's disease. Huntington's disease. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.