From Citizendium, the Citizens' Compendium
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- Antibiotic resistance : The development of resistance to an antibiotic in an organism originally susceptible to it
- Barbara McClintock : (1902 – 1992) - American cytogeneticist who won a Nobel Prize in 1983 for the discovery of genetic transposition.
- Caenorhabditis elegans : Free-living, transparent nematode (roundworm), about 1 mm in length, which lives in temperate soil environments.
- Classical plant breeding : The application of genetic principles to improve cultivated plants.
- Genetics : The study of the inheritance of characteristics, genes and DNA.
- Genotype : Genetic makeup, as distinguished from the physical appearance, of an organism or a group of organisms, based on a combination of alleles located on homologous chromosomes that determines a specific characteristic or trait.
- Horizontal gene transfer in plants : Any process in which an organism transfers genetic material (i.e. DNA) to another cell that is not its cellular offspring, as distinct from vertical gene transfer where genes are inherited from parents or ancestors in a lineage of cellular organisms.
- Horizontal gene transfer in prokaryotes : Horizontal gene transfer (HGT; also called lateral gene transfer, LGT) is defined as movement of genes between different species, or across broad taxonomic categories. Prokaryotes are cells, such as bacteria, that do not have a nucleus enclosed by a nuclear membrae. Their DNA is in a region of the cell called the nucleiod, or nucleus-like material.
- Maize : Cereal grain domesticated in Mesoamerica and subsequently spread throughout the world, and one of the most widely grown crops in the Americas.
- Mobile DNA : Blocks of DNA that are able to move and insert into new locations throughout the genome without needing DNA sequence similarity or requiring the process of homologous recombination to enable movement.
- Model organism : Species often used in research as models for the study of biological processes.
- Mutation : Changes to the DNA sequence that cause new genetic variation.
- Organism : An individual living individual: a complex, adaptive physical system that acts a integrated unit that sustains metabolism and reproduces progeny that resemble it.
- Population : Collection of inter-breeding organisms of a particular species, in a specifically defined area considered as a whole.
- Protein : A polymer of amino acids; basic building block of living systems.
- RNA interference : Process that inhibits the flow of genetic information to protein synthesis.
- Retrotransposon : Genetic elements that can amplify themselves in a genome with the use of reverse transcriptase, and are ubiquitous components of the DNA of many eukaryotic organisms.
- Transgenic plant : Plants that have been genetically modified by inserting genes directly into a single plant cell, from a different species.
- Virology : The study of viruses, sometimes included in the field of microbiology.
- Virus (biology) : A microscopic particle that can infect the cells of a biological organism and can reproduce only with the assistance of the cells it infects.