CZ:Featured article

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Featured Article is an award given weekly to a high-quality Citizendium article.

Chunbum Park is the current Featured Articles maintainer.

Note on editing Featured Articles (8 August 2011)

You are encouraged to fix any errors you find in our Featured Articles. Do note however, that changes made to the current Feature at CZ:Featured article/Current do not automatically apply to the main article. The /Current page is blanked once a week to make room for the next Feature. For your contribution to be permanent, you need to make the change in the main article as well, i.e. the topmost link in the list below. Thank you. Johan Förberg

Surely this should be made clear in other places than here? I continued editing one of the featured articles (Robert Burns) while it was still there, and I must have done it in the right way because the changes, as far as I can recall them, are still there. But it happened purely by chance. --Martin Wyatt 21:42, 15 February 2013 (UTC)

Formal policy

EC Decision D-2011-014, 28 February 2011:

The welcome page of the Citizendium shall display one or two featured articles.

If no other system of choosing and displaying articles is employed, then at least one article shall be chosen from our Approved articles on a rotating basis and shall thereafter be changed at least once a week.

Remark: This replaces the "Article of the Week" and the "New Draft of the Week" for the time being, or until another feature is installed.

Archive

List of previously featured articles.

Before May 4, 2011, there were two distinct categories of featured articles, which are archived separately.

Featured articles

  • Developed Article 2012 doomsday prophecy [r]: The year that Mayan calendars predicted to be the end of the world. Has become a meme associated with apocalyptic events fueled by booksellers, fearmongers and moviemakers. [e] (April 2 — 12, 2014)
  • Developing Article Mind-body problem [r]: The philosophical and scientific consideration of the relation between conscious mental activity and the underlying physical plant that supports this activity, consisting primarily of the brain, but also involving various sensors throughout the body. [e] (March 15 — April 2, 2014)
  • Developing Article Moral responsibility [r]: A duty or obligation to behave in a 'good' manner and refrain from behaving in a 'bad' manner. [e] (March 5 — 15, 2014)
  • Approved Article Oxytocin [r]: A mammalian hormone that is secreted into the bloodstream from the posterior pituitary gland, and which is also released into the brain where it has effects on social behaviors. [e] (February 16 — March 5, 2014)
  • Approved Article Thylakoid [r]: A membrane inside plastids that is embedded with proteins and pigments required for the capture of photons, a process that is required to drive photosynthesis. [e] (February 2 — 16, 2014)
  • Developed Article Hamburger [r]: A sandwich made with a bun containing a patty of ground, cooked meat that is almost always beef, usually served with condiments such as relish, mustard, or ketchup. [e] (January 18 — February 2, 2014)
  • Developed Article Jimmy Page [r]: (b. 9 January 1944) English session guitarist and founder of influential group Led Zeppelin, known for his production techniques and blues influenced lead guitar soloing. [e] (January 6 — 18, 2014)
  • Developing Article Standard argument against free will [r]: An argument proposing a conflict between the possibility of free will and the postulates of determinism and indeterminism. [e] (December 21, 2013 — January 6, 2014)
  • Approved Article Vacuum distillation [r]: The laboratory or industrial-scale distillation of liquids performed at a pressure lower than atmospheric pressure. [e] (December 7 — 21, 2013)
  • Approved Article Evidence-based medicine [r]: The conscientious, explicit and judicious use of current best evidence in making decisions about the care of individual patients. [e] (December 1 — 7, 2013)
  • Approved Article Partial pressure [r]: The pressure which each gas in a gas mixture would have if it alone occupied the same volume at the same temperature. [e] (November 21 — December 1, 2013)
  • Developing Article Subjective-objective dichotomy [r]: The philosophical separation of the world into objects (entities) which are perceived or otherwise presumed to exist as entities, by subjects (observers). [e] (November 8 — 21, 2013)
  • Developing Article Ukiyo-e [r]: A form of Japanese woodblock art of increasing technical complexity, originating in the Edo Period (1600-1868), with variants into the present [e] (October 27 — November 8, 2013)
  • Developed Article Keynesians [r]: Economists who have developed the theory originated by John Maynard Keynes that advocated the use of fiscal policy to maintain economic stability. [e] (October 14 — 27, 2013)
  • Developing Article Iraq War, major combat phase [r]: That part of the Iraq War involving the initial invasion by large-scale ground forces [e] (September 30 — October 14, 2013)
  • Developed Article Malthusianism [r]: A theory in demography which holds that population expands faster than food supplies and famine will result unless steps are taken to reduce population growth. [e] (September 21 — September 30, 2013)
  • Developed Article Japanese English [r]: English as used by native speakers of Japanese, either for communicating with non-Japanese speakers or commercial and entertainment purposes. Includes vocabulary and usages not found in the native English-speaking world. [e] (September 8 — September 21, 2013)
  • Developed Article Super C [r]: A premium, high-speed intermodal freight train operated by the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railway from 1968 to 1976. [e] (August 31 — September 8, 2013)
  • Developing Article Ontological pluralism [r]: The doctrine that there are different ways or modes of being [e] (August 24 — 31, 2013)
  • Developed Article Refrigerator car [r]: A piece of railroad rolling stock outfitted with cooling apparatus and designed to carry perishable freight at specific temperatures. [e] (August 17 — 24, 2013)
  • Developed Article San Diegan [r]: One of the named passenger trains of the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railway that operated between March 27, 1938 and April 30, 1971. [e] (August 10 — 17, 2013)
  • Stub William Morris [r]: William Morris (1834-1896) was a writer, a businessman, a pioneer of the Arts and Crafts movement, and an early socialist. [e] (August 4 — 10, 2013)
  • Approved Article Active attack [r]: An attack on a communications system in which the attacker creates, alters, replaces, re-routes or blocks messages; this contrasts with a passive attack in which he only reads them. [e] (July 27 — August 4, 2013)
  • Approved Article Acid rain [r]: Deposition of acidified rain, snow, sleet, hail, gases and particles, and acidified fog and cloud water, due to nitric or sulfuric acid pollution. [e] (July 20 — 27, 2013)
  • Approved Article Accidental release source terms [r]: The mathematical equations that estimate the rate at which accidental releases of air pollutants into the atmosphere may occur at industrial facilities. [e] (July 14 — 20, 2013)
  • Developing Article Mission San Diego de Alcalá [r]: A former religious outpost established in 1769 on the west coast of North America in the present-day State of California by Roman Catholics of the Franciscan Order under the direction of the Spanish crown. [e] (July 6 — 14, 2013)
  • Developing Article Internal-external distinction [r]: A division of an ontology into an internal linguistic framework and external practical questions about the utility of that framework [e] (June 29 — July 6, 2013)
  • External Article Paula Deen [r]: Biography of American author, chef and television personality Paula Deen. [e] (June 22 — 29, 2013)
  • Developed Article Battleship [r]: A heavily-armored, warship optimized for fighting other warships using large-caliber guns; certain armor requirements differentiated from cruisers; obsolete by end of World War II. [e] (June 15 — 22, 2013)
  • Developed Article Tauriel [r]: Fictional character from Peter Jackson's feature film adaptation of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit. [e] (June 8 — 15, 2013)
  • Developed Article Mission Buenaventura-class oiler [r]: A series of twenty-seven of fleet oilers built during World War II for service in the United States Navy. [e] (June 1 — 8, 2013)
  • Developed Article Mission San Juan Capistrano [r]: A former religious outpost established in 1776 on the west coast of North America in the present-day State of California by Roman Catholics of the Franciscan Order under the direction of the Spanish crown. [e] (May 25 — June 1, 2013)
  • Developed Article Amber Neben [r]: (1975 - ) An American cycle racer who has won several major international stage races and is a member of the 2008 U.S. Olympic road cycling team. [e] (May 18 — 25, 2013)
  • Developing Article Gay community [r]: A socially constructed collective reference to those people in society who are homosexual, and who interact to some degree with other homosexual people. [e] (May 11 — 18, 2013)
  • Approved Article Edward I [r]: (1272-1307) English king who conquered Wales and attempted to conquer Scotland. [e] (May 4 — 11, 2013)
  • Developed Article Special reconnaissance [r]: Also known as SR, missions deep in denied areas, conducted by special operations personnel. They may be in or out of uniform. While SR units may direct air, missile, or artillery strikes, they strive to stay undetected. [e] (April 27 — May 4, 2013)
  • Developed Article The Miernik Dossier [r]: The first of seven novels by Charles McCarry about the American intelligence agent Paul Christopher, it is set in 1959 Europe and Africa. [e] (April 21 — 27, 2013)
  • Developing Article Margaret Thatcher [r]: The first woman Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, famous for her free market views and for successfully waging the Falklands War, frequently called the "Iron Lady". [e] (April 13 — 21, 2013)
  • Developed Article Hypertension [r]: A multisystem disease whose hallmark is the elevation of blood pressure. [e] (April 6 — 13, 2013)
  • Developing Article Osteoporosis [r]: Reduction of bone mass without alteration in the composition of bone, leading to fractures. [e] (March 30 — April 6, 2013)
  • Developing Article Four color theorem [r]: (A famous mathematical statement with a long history) For every planar graph, four colors suffice to color its vertices in such a way that adjacent vertices have different colors. [e] (March 24 — 30, 2013)
  • Developing Article Papacy [r]: Head of the Roman Catholic Church. [e] (March 16 — 24, 2013)
  • Developed Article Vietnam War [r]: A post-colonial independence/Cold War conflict between communist North Vietnam against South Vietnam, assisted by the United States (1955-1975), to unify Vietnam; won by North Vietnam in 1975. [e] (March 9 — 16, 2013)
  • Developed Article Macroeconomics [r]: The study of the behaviour of the principal economic aggregates, treating the national economy as an open system. [e] (March 2 — 9, 2013)
  • Developed Article Malthusianism [r]: A theory in demography which holds that population expands faster than food supplies and famine will result unless steps are taken to reduce population growth. [e] (February 23 — March 2, 2013)
  • Developed Article Buddhist councils [r]: Add brief definition or description (February 16 — 23, 2013)
  • Developing Article Synapsid [r]: Class of animals that includes early mammals and everything similar to mammals, than to other living amniotes, classically described as mammal-like reptiles [e] (February 10 — 16, 2013)
  • Developed Article Cowdray House [r]: A 16th-century Tudor mansion badly damaged by fire in 1793. The ruins have been open to the public since the early 20th century. [e] (February 3 — 10, 2013)
  • Developing Article Mission San Gabriel Arcángel [r]: A former religious outpost established in 1771 on the west coast of North America in the present-day State of California by Roman Catholics of the Franciscan Order under the direction of the Spanish crown. [e] (January 29 — February 3, 2013)
  • Developing Article Mission San José [r]: A former religious outpost established in 1797 on the west coast of North America in the present-day State of California by Roman Catholics of the Franciscan Order under the direction of the Spanish crown. [e] (January 19 — 29, 2013)
  • Developing Article Hypercholesterolemia [r]: Presence of an abnormally large amount of cholesterol in the cells and plasma of the circulating blood. [e] (January 8 — 19, 2013)
  • Developing Article Diabetic neuropathy [r]: Negative effects on the nervous system that can be caused by diabetes mellitus, some of which may necessitate amputation. [e] (December 30, 2012 — January 8, 2013)
  • Developed Article Railroads in California [r]: A brief history of the network of interconnected independent rail transport systems located throughout the Union's thirty-first state and how they shaped the region's development. [e] (December 22 — 30, 2012)
  • Developed Article Robert Burns [r]: The National poet of Scotland (1759-96); writer of Auld Lang Syne. [e] (December 15 — 22, 2012)
  • Developed Article Wonders of the world [r]: Lists of especially remarkable artificial or natural structures of worldwide importance [e] (December 8 — 15, 2012)
  • Developing Article Silent letters in English [r]: English letter or letters within a particular word, which are not heard in the pronunciation of the word, but appear in the spelling—and the opposite. [e] (December 1 — 8, 2012)
  • Developing Article Fiscal policy [r]: Policy concerning public expenditure, taxation and borrowing and the provision of public goods and services, and their effects upon social conduct, the distribution of wealth and the level of economic activity. [e] (November 24 — December 1, 2012)
  • Developed Article Liquefied natural gas [r]: Natural gas (predominantly methane, CH4) that has been converted into liquid form for ease of transport and storage. [e] (November 17 — 24, 2012)
  • Developed Article Industrial cooling tower [r]: Heat rejection systems used primarily to provide circulating cooling water in large industrial facilities. [e] (November 10 — 17, 2012)
  • Approved Article Steam generator [r]: A device that uses a heat source to boil liquid water and convert it into its vapor phase, referred to as steam. [e] (November 6 — 10, 2012)
  • Developed Article Fenske equation [r]: An equation for calculating the minimum number of theoretical plates needed to separate a binary feed stream by a fractionation column operated at total reflux (i.e., meaning that no overhead product is being withdrawn from the column). [e] (October 28 — November 6, 2012)
  • Approval button.png Developed Article Pompeii [r]: A Roman city buried by a volcanic eruption A.D. 79. The city is now an important archaeological site. [e] (October 20 — 28, 2012)
  • Developing Article Potassium in nutrition and human health [r]: Role of dietary potassium and its associated bicarbonate-generating organic ions in human physiology and in preventive and therapeutic medicine. [e] (October 13 — 20, 2012)
  • Developing Article Pulmonary embolism [r]: Blocking of the pulmonary artery or one of its branches by an embolus. [e] (October 6 — 13, 2012)
  • Developed Article Spanish missions in California [r]: A series of twenty-one religious outposts and associated support facilities established by Spaniards of the Franciscan Order between 1769 and 1823, in order to spread the Catholic faith among the local Native American populations. [e] (September 30 — October 6, 2012)
  • Approved Article Set theory [r]: Mathematical theory that models collections of (mathematical) objects and studies their properties. [e] (September 24 — 30, 2012)
  • Developing Article Human rights [r]: Natural civil and political rights considered universal and applicable to all human beings worldwide. [e] (September 15 — 24, 2012)
  • Developing Article Acute coronary syndrome‎ [r]: Set of signs and symptoms related to the heart, due to myocardial ischemia. [e] (September 7 — 15, 2012)
  • Developing Article Emergence (biology) [r]: The exhibition of novel collective phenomena in living systems stemming from a complex organization of their many constituent parts. [e] (August 31 — September 7, 2012)
  • Developed Article Food reward [r]: The brain mechanisms involved in reinforcing feeding behaviour. [e] (August 24 — 31, 2012)
  • Approved Article NMR spectroscopy [r]: The use of electromagnetic radiation, in the presence of a magnetic field, to obtain information regarding transitions between different nuclear spin states of the nuclei present in the sample of interest. [e] (August 16 — 24, 2012)
  • Approved Article Dokdo [r]: A group of volcanic islets in the Sea of Japan, occupied by South Korea and claimed by Japan. The ecology consists of a moderate maritime climate with a diverse marine life, a large presence of birds, and some vegetation. [e] (August 10 — 16, 2012)
  • Developing Article Digital rights management [r]: Legal and technical techniques used by media publishers in an attempt to control distribution and usage of distributed video, audio, ebooks, and similar electronic media. [e] (August 3 — 10, 2012)
  • Approved Article Geometric sequence [r]: In elementary mathematics, a (finite or infinite) sequence of numbers such that the quotient of consecutive elements is constant. [e] (July 27 — August 3, 2012)
  • Developing Article Jet engine [r]: A reaction engine that discharges a high velocity jet of fluid to generate thrust in accordance with Newton's laws of motion. [e] (July 20 — 27, 2012)
  • Approved Article Block cipher [r]: A symmetric cipher that operates on fixed-size blocks of plaintext, giving a block of ciphertext for each [e] (July 13 — 20, 2012)
  • Stub Higgs boson [r]: A massive spin-0 elementary particle, first proposed by Peter Higgs, that plays a key role in explaining the mass of other elementary particles. [e] (July 6 — 13, 2012)
  • Developing Article Dementia [r]: Progressive decline in two or more cognitive domains that is severe enough to interfere with the performance of everyday activities. [e] (June 29 — July 6, 2012)
  • Developed Article Scalawag [r]: A Southern white American who joined the Republican party during Reconstruction. [e] (June 22 — 29, 2012)
  • Developing Article Formal fuzzy logic [r]: A system which translates vague assumptions into probabilities that can be used in calculations. [e] (June 16 — 22, 2012)
  • Developed Article Politics [r]: Activity that relates to the way in which society is governed, and the process by which human beings living in communities make decisions and establish obligatory values for its members. [e] (June 8 — 16, 2012)
  • Developing Article King cobra [r]: the largest venomous snake in the world belonging to the family Elapidae, found throughout South and Southeast Asia. [e] (June 1 — 8, 2012)
  • Developing Article Buddhism [r]: Spiritual tradition founded on the teachings of the Buddha. [e] (May 28 — June 1, 2012)
  • Approved Article Europe [r]: Sixth largest continent; area 10,000,000 km2; pop. 720,000,000 [e] (May 19 — 28, 2012)
  • Developed Article Black mamba [r]: A large, highly venomous snake which is the longest venomous snake in its native habitat, Africa. [e] (May 11 — 19, 2012)
  • Approved Article Passive attack [r]: An attack on a communications system in which the attacker reads messages he is not supposed to but does not alter them. [e] (May 5 — 11, 2012)
  • Approved Article Economics [r]: The analysis of the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services. [e] (April 28 — May 5, 2012)
  • Developed Article Choked flow [r]: A limiting point for the mass flow rate of a gas which occurs under specific conditions when the gas flows through a restriction (such as a valve, a convergent-divergent nozzle, the hole in an orifice plate, or a leak in a gas pipeline or other gas container) into a lower pressure environment. [e] (April 20 — 28, 2012)
  • Developing Article RMS Titanic [r]: British passenger liner that sank on its maiden voyage in 1912 after hitting an iceberg in the Atlantic Ocean; best-known maritime disaster. [e] (April 13 — 20, 2012)
  • Developed Article Karl Marx [r]: 19th century philosopher and economist. Creator of a theoretical foundation for Communism. [e] (April 6 — 13, 2012)
  • Approved Article ASIMO [r]: A Japanese humanoid robot created by Honda. [e] (March 31 — April 6, 2012)
  • Developed Article Associated Legendre function [r]: Function defined by <math>P^{(m)}_\ell(x) = (1-x^2)^{m/2} \tfrac{d^m}{dx^m} P_\ell(x)</math> where P denotes a Legendre function. [e] (March 23 — 31, 2012)
  • Approved Article The Social Capital Foundation [r]: A Brussels-based NGO promoting social capital and social cohesion. [e] (March 17 — 23, 2012)
  • Approved Article History of economic thought [r]: the historical development of economic thinking. [e] (March 9 — 17, 2012)
  • Developed Article Los Alamos National Laboratory [r]: A U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) national laboratory located in Los Alamos, New Mexico and originally the development and construction center of nuclear weapons during the Manhattan Project for use by the United States in World War II. [e] (March 2 — 9, 2012)
  • Developed Article Diabesity [r]: A term referring to the intricate relationship between type 2 diabetes and obesity. [e] (February 24 — March 2, 2012)
  • Developed Article Electroconvulsive therapy [r]: A psychiatric treatment that involves inducing a seizure in a patient by passing electricity through the brain. [e] (February 18 — 24, 2012)
  • Approved Article International economics [r]: The study of the patterns and consequences of transactions and interactions between the inhabitants of different countries, including trade, investment and migration. [e] (February 10 — 18, 2012)
  • Developed Article The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order [r]: A book, by Samuel Huntington, assuming a fundamental conflict between civilizations of different cultures, and discussing grand strategy to deal with this conflict [e] (February 3 — 10, 2012)
  • Developed Article National Institute of Standards and Technology [r]: A measurement standards laboratory which is a non-regulatory agency of the United States Department of Commerce. [e] (January 27 — February 3, 2012)
  • Developed Article Hausdorff dimension [r]: The extended non-negative real exponent associated to any metric space where the Hausdorff measure changes from ∞ to 0. [e] (January 20 — 27, 2012)
  • Approved Article Ideal gas law [r]: Relates pressure, volume and temperature for hypothetical gases of atoms or molecules with negligible intermolecular forces. [e] (January 14 — 20, 2012)
  • Developed Article Volatility (chemistry) [r]: A term used to characterize the tendency of a substance to vaporize. [e] (January 6 — 14, 2012)
  • Approved Article Alcmaeon of Croton [r]: A Greek natural philosopher, living c. 500 BCE, interested in particular in medicine and physiology, credited by scholars as the first person to recognize the brain as the seat of intelligence and mind, whose ideas about the causes of disease prompted or anticipated those of Hippocrates. [e] (December 31, 2011 — January 6, 2012)
  • Developed Article Thomas Jefferson [r]: (1743-1826) Third President of the United States; author of the Declaration of Independence and the Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom; father of the University of Virginia [e] (December 23 — 31, 2011)
  • Developed Article Linguistics [r]: The scientific study of language. [e] (December 17 — 23, 2011)
  • Developed Article Kilt [r]: A knee-length, skirtlike, traditional Scottish garment, usually worn by men as part of Highland attire. [e] (December 9 — 17, 2011)
  • Developed Article Warfarin [r]: Rat poison also used as anticoagulant medication to prevent embolism and thrombosis [e] (December 2 — 9, 2011)
  • Developed Article Global warming [r]: The increase in the average temperature of the Earth's near-surface air and oceans in recent decades and its projected continuation. [e] (November 26 — December 2, 2011)
  • Developed Article Reuben sandwich [r]: Part of American food folklore, a dish made from rye bread, sauerkraut, Swiss cheese and corned beef, although pastrami can be used instead of corned beef. [e] (November 19 — 26, 2011)
  • Developed Article British and American English [r]: A comparison between these two language variants in terms of vocabulary, spelling and pronunciation. [e] (November 12 — 19, 2011)
  • Developed Article Plymouth Colony [r]: English colony in North America, 1620-1691, until it was absorbed by Massachusetts. [e] (November 4 — 12, 2011)
  • Developed Article Arab Spring [r]: Protest movements in the Arab world that seek the removal of oppressive governments. [e] (October 28 — November 4, 2011)
  • Developed Article C (letter) [r]: The third letter of the English and Latin alphabets. [e] (October 22 — 28, 2011)
  • Approved Article Fertility (demography) [r]: The demographic analysis of having babies. [e] (October 14 — 22, 2011)
  • Developed Article Geometric series [r]: A series associated with a geometric sequence, i.e., consecutive terms have a constant ratio. [e] (October 8 — 14, 2011)
  • Developed Article Eurozone crisis [r]: A financial crisis involving member countries of the Eurozone [e] (October 1 — 8, 2011)
  • Developed Article Destroyer [r]: While the definition has evolved constantly, it is a multipurpose surface warship, generally less powerful than a cruiser, with capabilities against ship, aircraft, submarine, land, and sometimes ballistic missile targets [e] (September 26 — October 1, 2011)
  • Approved Article Cypherpunk [r]: People interested in cryptography as a tool for privacy, anonymity and social change. [e] (September 17 — 26, 2011)
  • Developed Article Dirac delta function [r]: Sharply peaked function, generalization of the Kronecker delta; a distribution that maps a regular function onto a single function value. [e] (September 10 — 17, 2011)
  • Lockheed SR-71 [r]: Add brief definition or description (September 2 — 10, 2011)
  • Developed Article Clostridium difficile [r]: A bacteria species causing infectious diarhhea and pseudomembranous colitis. [e] (August 25 — September 2, 2011)
  • Developed Article Great Recession [r]: The disruption of economic activity that began with a downturn in 2007 and generated international repercussions that continued through 2012 and into 2013. [e] (August 19 — 25, 2011)
  • Developed Article Alice Bailey [r]: Author of spiritual, occult, esoteric and religious themes; early popularizer of terms New Age and Age of Aquarius. [e] (August 13 — 19, 2011)
  • Approved Article Félix d'Hérelle [r]: (1873 – 1949) - A French-Canadian bacteriologist, and the discoverer of bacteriophages. [e] (August 7 — 13, 2011)
  • Developed Article Miller effect [r]: The increase in the equivalent input capacitance of an inverting voltage amplifier due to a capacitance connected between two gain-related nodes. [e] (July 29 — August 7, 2011)
  • Developed Article Gut-brain signalling [r]: The interaction between the gastrointestinal tract and the brain. [e] (July 23 — 29, 2011)
  • Developed Article Neanderthal [r]: Extinct member of the Homo genus that is known from Pleistocene specimens found in Europe and parts of western and central Asia. [e] (July 13 — 23, 2011)
  • Developed Article Tennis [r]: A sport played on a hard-surfaced rectangular court, between either two players or two teams of two players each, in which the players attempt to strike a hollow rubber ball, using a stringed raquet, over a net into the opponent's half of the court. [e] (July 2 — 13, 2011)
  • Developed Article Apollo program [r]: A human spaceflight program undertaken by NASA during the years 1961–1975 with the goal of conducting manned moon landing missions. [e] (June 26 — July 2, 2011)
  • Developing Article Semiconductor diode [r]: Two-terminal device that conducts current in only one direction, made of two or more layers of material, of which at least one is a semiconductor. [e] (June 17 — 26, 2011)
  • Developed Article Miller effect [r]: The increase in the equivalent input capacitance of an inverting voltage amplifier due to a capacitance connected between two gain-related nodes. [e] (June 11 — 17, 2011)
  • Approved Article Specific heat ratio [r]: The ratio of the specific heat of a gas at constant pressure, <math>C_p</math>, to the specific heat at constant volume, <math>C_v</math>, also sometimes called the adiabatic index or the heat capacity ratio or the isentropic expansion factor. [e] (June 3 — 11 2011)
  • Approved Article Macromolecular chemistry [r]: The study of the physical, biological and chemical structure, properties, composition, and reaction mechanisms of macromolecules. [e] (May 27 — June 3, 2011)
  • Developed Article Tecum Umam [r]: Legendary defender of the Maya and national hero of Guatemala. [e] (May 21 — 27, 2011)
  • Developed Article Heterotaxis [r]: A genus of orchids formed by a group of about fourteen large epiphytic neotropical species of small flowers, which previously were considered part of genus Maxillaria. [e] (May 4 — 21, 2011)

Articles of the Week (before May 4, 2011)

  • Developed Article Space (mathematics) [r]: A set with some added structure, which often form a hierarchy, i.e., one space may inherit all the characteristics of a parent space. [e]
  • Approved Article World of Warcraft [r]: An online video game, released by Blizzard Entertainment in 2004. [e]
  • Approved Article Social capital [r]: Productive assets arising out of social relations, such as trust, cooperation, solidarity, social networks of relations and those beliefs, ideologies and institutions that contribute to production of goods. [e]
  • Developed Article Richard Condon [r]: (1915 – 1996) A prolific and popular American political novelist whose satiric works were generally presented in the form of thrillers or semi-thrillers. [e]
  • Approved Article Natural gas [r]: A gas consisting primarily of methane (CH4) which is found as raw natural gas in underground reservoirs, as gas associated with underground reservoirs of petroleum crude oil, as undersea methane hydrates and as coalbed methane in underground coal mines. [e]
  • Developed Article Stairway to Heaven [r]: 1971 song written and recorded by Led Zeppelin, which became their signature tune and a centrepiece for the group's live performances. [e]
  • Approved Article Cryptography [r]: A field at the intersection of mathematics and computer science that is concerned with the security of information, typically the confidentiality, integrity and authenticity of some message. [e]
  • Developing Article English spellings [r]: Lists of English words showing pronunciation, and articles about letters. [e]
  • Approved Article Folk saint [r]: A deceased person or spirit that is venerated as a saint but who has not been officially canonized by the Church. [e]
  • Approved Article Led Zeppelin [r]: Famous and influential English hard rock and blues group formed in 1968, known for their albums Led Zeppelin IV and Physical Graffiti, and songs 'Stairway to Heaven' and 'Whole Lotta Love'. [e]
  • Developed Article Locality of reference [r]: A commonly observed pattern in memory accesses by a computer program over time. [e]
  • Developed Article Rabbit [r]: Long-eared, short-tailed, burrowing mammals of the family Leporidae of the order Lagomorpha, found in several parts of the world. [e]
  • Approved Article Scarborough Castle [r]: Ruined stone castle on the east coast of Yorkshire, England, begun in mid-twelfth century. [e] (September 3)
  • Developed Article The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order [r]: A book, by Samuel Huntington, assuming a fundamental conflict between civilizations of different cultures, and discussing grand strategy to deal with this conflict [e] (August 27)
  • Developed Article Mauna Kea [r]: One of the three main volcanic mountains on Hawaii, the biggest island in the state of Hawaii. [e] (August 20)
  • Approved Article Brute force attack [r]: An attempt to break a cipher by trying all possible keys; long enough keys make this impractical. [e] (August 13)
  • Developed Article Cruiser [r]: While definitions vary with time and doctrine, a large warship capable of acting independently, as a flagship, or a major escort; capabilities include anti-air warfare, anti-surface warfare, anti-submarine warfare, land attack, and possibly ballistic missile defense [e] (August 5)
  • Developed Article The Canterbury Tales [r]: Collection of stories in verse and prose by Geoffrey Chaucer. [e] (July 30)
  • Developed Article Milpa agriculture [r]: A form of swidden agriculture that is practiced in Mesoamerica. Traditionally, a "milpa" plot is planted with maize, beans, and squash. [e] (July 23)
  • Approved Article Domain Name System [r]: The Internet service which translates to and from IP addresses and domain names. [e] (July 16)
  • Developed Article Scuticaria [r]: A genus of orchids, closely related to Bifrenaria, formed by nine showy species of cylindrical leaves, which exist in three isolated areas of South America. [e] (July 9)
  • Developed Article Torture [r]: The infliction of mental or physical pain, for punishment or as an interrogation technique. [e] (July 2)
  • Developed Article Miltonia [r]: An orchid genus formed by nine showy epiphyte species and seven natural hybrids of Brazil, one species reaching Argentina and Paraguay. [e] (June 25)
  • Approved Article Ancient Celtic music [r]: The music and instruments of the ancient Celts until late Antiquity. [e] (June 18)
  • Developed Article Bifrenaria [r]: A genus of orchids formed by circa twenty species of South America, some widely cultivated because of their large and colored flowers; divided in two distinct groups, one with large flowers and short inflorescences and the other with small flowers and long inflorescences. [e] (June 11)
  • Developed Article Halobacterium NRC-1 [r]: A microorganism from the Archaea kingdom perfectly suited for life in highly saline environments giving biologists an ideal specimen for genetic studies. [e] (June 4)
  • Developed Article Animal [r]: A multicellular organism that feeds on other organisms, and is distinguished from plants, fungi, and unicellular organisms. [e] (May 28)
  • Approved Article Coal [r]: A carbon-containing rock formed by the effect of bacteria, heat and pressure on the debris from the decay of ferns, vines, trees and other plants which flourished in swamps millions of years ago. [e] (May 21)
  • Approved Article Johannes Diderik van der Waals [r]: (1837 – 1923) Dutch scientist, proposed the van der Waals equation of state for gases. [e] (May 7)
  • Approved Article Scientific method [r]: The concept of systematic inquiry based on hypotheses and their testing in light of empirical evidence. [e] (Apr 14)
  • Developed Article Korematsu v. United States [r]: A U.S. Supreme Court case, in which the internment of Japanese-Americans was deemed constitutional due to military necessity [e] (Apr 7)
  • Approved Article Orchid [r]: Any plant classified under Orchidaceae, one of the largest plant families and the largest among Monocotyledons. [e] (Mar 31)
  • Developed Article Oliver Cromwell [r]: (1599-1658) English soldier, statesman, and leader of the Puritan revolution, nicknamed "Old Ironsides". [e] (Mar 24)
  • Developed Article Wisconsin v. Yoder [r]: 1972 U.S. Supreme Court decision in which it was held that the constitutional rights of the Amish, under the "free exercise of religion" clause, were violated by the state's compulsory school attendance law. [e] (Mar 17)
  • Approved Article Conventional coal-fired power plant [r]: An industrial plant which produces electricity by burning of coal and air in a steam generator that heats water to produce high pressure steam which then flows through a series of steam turbines that spin an electrical generator to generate electricity. [e] (Mar 10)
  • Developed Article Battle of the Ia Drang [r]: First divisional-scale battle involving helicopter-borne air assault troops, with U.S. forces against those of North Vietnam [e] (Mar 3)
  • Developed Article Ether (physics) [r]: Medium that can carry electromagnetic waves (obsolete) [e] (Feb 24)
  • Developed Article Large-scale trickle filters [r]: One of the processes by which biodegradable substances in wastewaters are biochemically oxidized. [e] (11 Feb)
  • Approved Article Homeopathy [r]: System of alternative medicine involving administration of highly diluted substances with the intention to stimulate the body's natural healing processes, not considered proven by mainstream science. [e] (28 Jan)
  • Approved Article Microeconomics [r]: A branch of economics that deals with transactions between suppliers and consumers, acting individually or in groups. [e] (14 Jan)
  • Developed Article Speech Recognition [r]: The ability to recognize and understand human speech, especially when done by computers. [e] (26 Nov)
  • Developed Article Mashup [r]: An integrated application created by combining data and services of multiple applications. On the web, "mashup" typically refers to the combining of geographical location information with a service such as Google maps or Microsoft Virtual Earth. [e] (19 Nov)
  • Approved Article Tux [r]: The name of the penguin, official logo and cartoon mascot for the Linux computer operating system. [e] (14 Oct)
  • Developed Article Hydrogen bond [r]: A non-covalent and non-ionic chemical bond involving a hydrogen atom and either Fluorine, Nitrogen, or Oxygen. [e] (7 Oct)
  • Developed Article Lead [r]: Chemical element number 82, a corrosion-resistant, dense, ductile heavy metal known to cause neurological problems. [e] (1 Sept)
  • Approved Article DNA [r]: A macromolecule — chemically, a nucleic acid — that stores genetic information. [e] (8 July)
  • Approved Article Augustin-Louis_Cauchy [r]: (1789 – 1857) prominent French mathematician, one of the pioneers of rigor in mathematics and complex analysis. [e] (1 July)
  • Developed Article Vasco da Gama [r]: Portuguese explorer who established a sea route from Europe to India. [e] (24 June)
  • Approved Article Phosphorus [r]: Chemical element (Z=15) vital to life and widely used in fertilizers, detergents and pesticides. [e] (17 June)
  • Approved Article Crystal Palace [r]: A glass and iron structure built to house the Great Exhibition in Hyde Park, London, in 1851. It was moved and rebuilt on Sydenham Hill in 1854 but was destroyed by fire in 1936. [e] (10 June)
  • Approved Article Gross Domestic Product [r]: Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is a total of the outputs recorded in a country’s national income accounts. [e] (3 June)
  • Approved Article RNA interference [r]: Process that inhibits the flow of genetic information to protein synthesis. [e] (27 May)
  • Developing Article Latino history [r]: History of Hispanics in the U.S., especially those of Mexican origins. [e] (20 May)
  • Developed Article Navy Grog [r]: Rum-based drink. [e] (13 May)
  • Developed Article Systems biology [r]: The study of biological systems as a whole. [e] (6 May)
  • Developed Article Steroid [r]: Hormone group that controls metabolism, catabolism, growth, electrolyte balance and sexual characteristics. [e] (22 Apr)
  • Developed Article Lebanon [r]: a country in the Middle East. It borders Syria to the north and east, Israel to the south, and the Mediterranean Sea to the west. Its official language is Arabic, although French is widely spoken. The capital and largest city of Lebanon is Beirut. [e] (15 Apr)
  • Approved Article Wheat [r]: Grass crop grown worldwide and used in making flour and fermentation for alcohol production. [e] (7 Apr)
  • Approved Article Benjamin Franklin [r]: 1706-1790, American statesman and scientist, based in Philadelphia. [e] (1 Apr)
  • Developed Article Coherer [r]: A type of radio detector, popular in the earliest days of radio development, beginning around 1890. [e] (25 Mar)
  • Developed Article U.S. Civil War [r]: Major war 1861-65 fought over slavery in which the U.S. defeated the secessionist Confederate States of America. [e] (18 Mar)
  • Approved Article Life [r]: Living systems, of which biologists seek the commonalities distinguishing them from nonliving systems. [e] (11 Mar)
  • Approved Article Petroleum refining processes [r]: The chemical engineering processes used in petroleum refining. [e] (4 Mar)
  • Approved Article Shirley Chisholm [r]: The first African-American congresswoman, serving from 1969-1983, representing New York's 12th Congressional District. [e] (20 Feb)
  • Approved Article Telephone Newspaper [r]: A telephone-based news service in the first years after market introduction of the telephone. [e] (4 Feb)
  • Developed Article Wristwatch [r]: Timepiece designed to be worn around the wrist. [e] (28 Jan)
  • Developing Article Korean War of 1592-1598 [r]: Fought on the Korean peninsula from 1592 to 1598 between Japan and the Chinese tributary alliance (Korea, China, Ryukyus, Java, etc.), and resulted in Japanese retreat. [e] (21 Jan)
  • Approved Article Andrew Carnegie [r]: 1835-1919, Scottish-American steel maker, philanthropist and peace activist [e] (11 January 2008)
  • Developed Article Bowling [r]: An indoor sport in which a large, heavy ball is rolled down a lane to hit a cluster of pins. [e] (31 December 2007)
  • Developed Article Architecture [r]: The art and technique of designing and constructing buildings to fulfill both practical and aesthetic purposes. [e] (December 6)
  • Approved Article Civil society [r]: The space for social activity outside the market, state and household; the arena of uncoerced collective action around shared interests, purposes and values. [e] November 29
  • Approved Article Joan of Arc [r]: A French peasant girl (ca. 1412 – 1431) who led her nation's armies during the Hundred Years' War and became a national heroine and saint. [e] (November 22)
  • Approved Article Chemistry [r]: The science of matter, or of the electrical or electrostatical interactions of matter. [e] (November 15)
  • Developed Article Albert Gallatin [r]: 1761-1849, Swiss born American statesman and anthropologist [e] (November 8)
  • Approved Article Prime number [r]: A number that can be evenly divided by exactly two positive whole numbers, namely one and itself. [e] (November 1)
  • Developed Article Tennis [r]: A sport played on a hard-surfaced rectangular court, between either two players or two teams of two players each, in which the players attempt to strike a hollow rubber ball, using a stringed raquet, over a net into the opponent's half of the court. [e] (October 25)
  • Approved Article Rottweiler [r]: A large breed of dog known for its great physical strength and strong protective instinct. [e] (October 18)
  • Approved Article Theodor Lohmann [r]: A 19th century (1831-1905) German administrative lawyer, civil servant and social reformer, second in importance only to Otto von Bismarck in the formation of the German social insurance system. [e] (October 9)
  • Developed Article William Shakespeare [r]: (1564- 1616) English poet and playwright. [e] (October 2)
  • Approved Article Edward I [r]: (1272-1307) English king who conquered Wales and attempted to conquer Scotland. [e] (September 25)
  • Developed Article El Tío [r]: In highland Bolivian folk religion, the spirit owner of the mountain, who is also known as Huari or Supay. [e] (September 18)
  • Developed Article Scotland Yard [r]: The traditional name of the headquarters of the London Metropolitan Police. [e] (September 11)
  • Developed Article Kilt [r]: A knee-length, skirtlike, traditional Scottish garment, usually worn by men as part of Highland attire. [e] (September 4)
  • Developed Article U.S. Electoral College [r]: The indirect election mechanism used to select the president and vice president of the United States [e] (August 28)
  • Approved Article Butler [r]: Manages all affairs of a household and servicing of principals and guests, providing the service themselves and/or hiring and supervising outside contractors, vendors, housekeeping staff, chef, chauffeur, valet, or personal assistant or secretary. [e] (August 21)
  • Developed Article Tony Blair [r]: Former Labour Party politician and Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (1997-2007). [e] (August 14)
  • Approved Article Northwest Passage [r]: Water route connecting the Atlantic and Pacific oceans north of the North American mainland. [e] (August 7)
  • Approved Article Literature [r]: The profession of “letters” (from Latin litteras), and written texts considered as aesthetic and expressive objects. [e] (July 31)
  • Approved Article Biology [r]: The science of life — of complex, self-organizing, information-processing systems living in the past, present or future. [e] (July 25)

New Drafts of the Week (before May 4, 2011)

  • Developing Article Multi-touch interface [r]: Set of interaction techniques which allow computer or mobile users to control graphical user interface with more than one finger at either application or system level. [e]
  • Developing Article NoSQL [r]: A number of non-relational distributed database architectures, usually that store data as key-value pairs. [e]
  • Developing Article Debt [r]: The outcome of an agreement between a person or organisation wishing to make immediate use of resources, and one wishing to defer their use. [e]
  • Developing Article Ellesmere Chaucer manuscript [r]: Early 15th century illuminated manuscript of Geoffrey Chaucer's The Canterbury Tales. [e]
  • Approved Article Ellipse [r]: Planar curve formed by the points whose distances to two given points add up to a given number. [e]
  • Stub Aeneid [r]: An epic poem written by Virgil, which depicts the hero Aeneas fleeing from Troy, journeying to Carthage, Sicily, and finally to Italy where after battling, he becomes the precursor of the city of Rome; a monumental work of major significance in Western literature. [e]
  • Developing Article Tall tale [r]: A narrative, song or jest, transmitted orally or in writing, presenting an incredible, boastful or impossible story. [e]
  • Approved Article Plane (geometry) [r]: In elementary geometry, a flat surface that entirely contains all straight lines passing through two of its points. [e]
  • Developing Article Steam [r]: The vapor (or gaseous) phase of water (H2O). [e]
  • Developing Article Wasan [r]: Classical Japanese mathematics that flourished during the Edo Period from the 17th to mid-19th centuries. [e]
  • Developing Article Racism in Australia [r]: The history of racism and restrictive immigration policies in the Commonwealth of Australia. [e]
  • Developing Article Think tank [r]: An organization that presents ideas as expert analysis, the level of objectivity of which varies with the institution, but with an implication of at least some intellectual independence. [e]
  • Developing Article Les Paul [r]: (9 June 1915 – 13 August 2009) American innovator, inventor, musician and songwriter, who was notably a pioneer in the development of the solid-body electric guitar. [e]
  • Developing Article Zionism [r]: The ideology that Jews should form a Jewish state in what is traced as the Biblical area of Palestine; there are many interpretations, including the boundaries of such a state and its criteria for citizenship [e] (September 3)
  • Developed Article Earth's atmosphere [r]: An envelope of gas that surrounds the Earth and extends from the Earth's surface out thousands of kilometres, becoming increasingly thinner (less dense) with distance but always held in place by Earth's gravitational pull. [e] (August 27)
  • Developed Article Joshua Lawrence Chamberlain [r]: U.S. educator deeply bonded to Bowdoin College, from undergraduate to President; American Civil War general and recipient of the Medal of Honor; Governor of Maine [e] (August 20)
  • Developing Article The Sporting Life (album) [r]: A 1994 studio album recorded by Diamanda Galás and John Paul Jones. [e] (August 13}
  • Developing Article The Rolling Stones [r]: Famous and influential English blues rock group formed in 1962, known for their albums Let It Bleed and Sticky Fingers, and songs '(I Can't Get No) Satisfaction' and 'Start Me Up'. [e] (August 5)
  • Developing Article Euler angles [r]: three rotation angles that describe any rotation of a 3-dimensional object. [e] (July 30)
  • Developing Article Chester Nimitz [r]: United States Navy fleet admiral (1885-1966) who was Commander in Chief, Pacific and Pacific Ocean Areas in World War II [e] (July 23)
  • Developing Article Heat [r]: A form of energy that flows spontaneously from hotter to colder bodies that are in thermal contact. [e] (July 16)
  • Developed Article Continuum hypothesis [r]: A statement about the size of the continuum, i.e., the number of elements in the set of real numbers. [e] (July 9)
  • Developing Article Hawaiian alphabet [r]: The form of writing used in the Hawaiian Language [e] (July 2)
  • Developing Article Now and Zen [r]: A 1988 studio album recorded by Robert Plant, with guest contributions from Jimmy Page. [e] (June 25)
  • Developing Article Wrench (tool) [r]: A fastening tool used to tighten or loosen threaded fasteners, with one end that makes firm contact with flat surfaces of the fastener, and the other end providing a means of applying force [e] (June 18)
  • Developing Article Air preheater [r]: A general term to describe any device designed to preheat the combustion air used in a fuel-burning furnace for the purpose of increasing the thermal efficiency of the furnace. [e] (June 11)
  • Developing Article 2009 H1N1 influenza virus [r]: A contagious influenza A virus discovered in April 2009, commonly known as swine flu. [e] (June 4)
  • Approved Article Gasoline [r]: A fuel for spark-ignited internal combustion engines derived from petroleum crude oil. [e] (21 May)
  • Developed Article John Brock [r]: Fictional British secret agent who starred in three 1960s thrillers by Desmond Skirrow. [e] (8 May)
  • Developing Article McGuffey Readers [r]: A set of highly influential school textbooks used in the 19th and early 20th centuries in the elementary grades in the United States. [e] (14 Apr)
  • Developing Article Vector rotation [r]: Process of rotating one unit vector into a second unit vector. [e] (7 Apr)
  • Developing Article Leptin [r]: Hormone secreted by adipocytes that regulates appetite. [e] (31 Mar)
  • Developing Article Kansas v. Crane [r]: A 2002 decision of the Supreme Court of the United States, ruling that a person could not be adjudicated a sexual predator and put in indefinite medical confinement, purely on assessment of an emotional disorder, but such action required proof of a likelihood of uncontrollable impulse presenting a clear and present danger. [e] (24 Mar)
  • Developing Article Punch card [r]: A term for cards used for storing information. Herman Hollerith is credited with the invention of the media for storing information from the United States Census of 1890. [e] (17 Mar)
  • Developing Article Jass–Belote card games [r]: A group of trick-taking card games in which the Jack and Nine of trumps are the highest trumps. [e] (10 Mar)
  • Approved Article Leptotes (orchid) [r]: A genus of orchids formed by nine small species that exist primarily in the dry jungles of South and Southeast Brazil. [e] (3 Mar)
  • Developing Article Worm (computers) [r]: A form of malware that can spread, among networked computers, without human interaction. [e] (24 Feb)
  • Developing Article Joseph Black [r]: (1728 – 1799) Scottish physicist and chemist, known for his discoveries of latent heat, specific heat, and carbon dioxide [e] (11 Feb 2009)
  • Developing Article Sympathetic magic [r]: The cultural concept that a symbol, or small aspect, of a more powerful entity can, as desired by the user, invoke or compel that entity [e] (17 Jan 2009)
  • Developed Article Dien Bien Phu [r]: Site in northern Vietnam of a 1954 decisive battle that soon forced France to relinquish control of colonial Indochina. [e] (25 Dec)
  • Developing Article Blade Runner [r]: 1982 science fiction film directed by Ridley Scott and starring Harrison Ford, based on the 1968 Philip K. Dick novel Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep? [e] (25 Nov)
  • Developed Article Piquet [r]: A two-handed card game played with 32 cards that originated in France around 1500. [e] (18 Nov)
  • Developed Article Crash of 2008 [r]: the international banking crisis that followed the subprime mortgage crisis of 2007. [e] (23 Oct)
  • Developing Article Information Management [r]: The application of management principles to the acquisition, organization, control, dissemination and use of information relevant to the effective operation of organizations of all kinds. [e] (31 Aug)
  • Developing Article Battle of Gettysburg [r]: A turning point in the American Civil War, July 1-3, 1863, on the outskirts of Gettysburg, Pennsylvania. [e] (8 July)
  • Approved Article Drugs banned from the Olympics [r]: Substances prohibited for use by athletes prior to, and during competing in the Olympics. [e] (1 July)
  • Developing Article Sea glass [r]: Formed when broken pieces of glass from bottles, tableware, and other items that have been lost or discarded are worn down and rounded by tumbling in the waves along the shores of oceans and large lakes. [e] (24 June)
  • Developing Article Dazed and Confused (Led Zeppelin song) [r]: Landmark 1969 song recorded by Led Zeppelin for their eponymous debut album, which became an early centrepiece for the group's live performances. [e] (17 June)
  • Developed Article Hirohito [r]: The 124th and longest-reigning Emperor of Japan, 1926-89. [e] (10 June)
  • Developed Article Henry Kissinger [r]: (1923—) American academic, diplomat, and simultaneously Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs and Secretary of State in the Nixon Administration; promoted realism (foreign policy) and détente with China and the Soviet Union; shared 1973 Nobel Peace Prize for ending the Vietnam War; Director, Atlantic Council [e] (3 June)
  • Stub Palatalization [r]: An umbrella term for several processes of assimilation in phonetics and phonology, by which the articulation of a consonant is changed under the influence of a preceding or following front vowel or a palatal or palatalized consonant. [e] (27 May)
  • Developing Article Intelligence on the Korean War [r]: The collection and analysis, primarily by the United States with South Korean help, of information that predicted the 1950 invasion of South Korea, and the plans and capabilities of the enemy once the war had started [e] (20 May)
  • Developed Article Trinity United Church of Christ, Chicago [r]: A predominantly black church located in south Chicago with upwards of 10,000 members, established in 1961. [e] (13 May)
  • Developing Article BIOS [r]: Part of many modern computers responsible for basic functions such as controlling the keyboard or booting up an operating system. [e] (6 May)
  • Developed Article Miniature Fox Terrier [r]: A small Australian vermin-routing terrier, developed from 19th Century Fox Terriers and Fox Terrier types. [e] (23 April)
  • Developing Article Joseph II [r]: (1741–1790), Holy Roman Emperor and ruler of the Hapsburg (Austrian) territories who was the arch-embodiment of the Enlightenment spirit of the later 18th-century reforming monarchs. [e] (15 Apr)
  • Developed Article British and American English [r]: A comparison between these two language variants in terms of vocabulary, spelling and pronunciation. [e] (7 Apr)
  • Developed Article Count Rumford [r]: (1753–1814) An American born soldier, statesman, scientist, inventor and social reformer. [e] (1 April)
  • Developing Article Whale meat [r]: The edible flesh of various species of whale. [e] (25 March)
  • Developed Article Naval guns [r]: Artillery weapons on ships, and techniques and devices for aiming them. [e] (18 March)
  • Developing Article Sri Lanka [r]: An island nation in South Asia, located 31 km off the south-east coast of India, formerly known as Ceylon . [e] (11 March)
  • Approved Article Led Zeppelin [r]: Famous and influential English hard rock and blues group formed in 1968, known for their albums Led Zeppelin IV and Physical Graffiti, and songs 'Stairway to Heaven' and 'Whole Lotta Love'. [e] (4 March)
  • Developing Article Martin Luther [r]: German theologian and monk (1483-1546); led the Reformation; believed that salvation is granted on the basis of faith rather than deeds. [e] (20 February)
  • Developing Article Cosmology [r]: A branch of astronomy and of metaphysics committed to the study of the universe as a whole, of the contents, structure, and evolution of the universe from the beginning of time to the future. [e] (4 February)
  • Developing Article Ernest Rutherford [r]: (August 30, 1871 - October 19, 1937)The first person to split an atom. [e](28 January)
  • Developing Article Edinburgh [r]: The capital of Scotland. [e] (21 January)
  • Developing Article Russian Revolution of 1905 [r]: The popular uprising that created an element of constitutional monarchy in Russia following Nicholas II's October Manifesto of 1905. [e] (8 January 2008)
  • Approved Article Phosphorus [r]: Chemical element (Z=15) vital to life and widely used in fertilizers, detergents and pesticides. [e] (31 December)
  • Developing Article John Tyler [r]: (March 29, 1790 – January 18, 1862) A United States politician and the tenth President of the United States (1841-1845). [e] (6 December)
  • Developing Article Banana [r]: The fruit of a wide range of species in the Musa taxonomic genus. [e] (22 November)
  • Approved Article Augustin-Louis Cauchy [r]: (1789 – 1857) prominent French mathematician, one of the pioneers of rigor in mathematics and complex analysis. [e] (15 November)
  • Developing Article B-17 Flying Fortress (bomber) [r]: A U.S. designed heavy bomber, with relatively light payload and moderate range, but excellent defenses and rugged construction, that was the primary U.S. daytime strategic bomber in the European Theater of the Second World War [e] - 8 November 2007
  • Developing Article Red Sea Urchin [r]: A species of marine invertebrate belonging to the phylum Echinodermata or "spiny-skinned" animals. [e] - 1 November 2007
  • Approved Article Symphony [r]: A large-scale musical composition, generally regarded as the central orchestral form. [e] - 25 October 2007
  • Developing Article Oxygen [r]: A chemical element with the symbol O and atomic number 8. [e] - 18 October 2007
  • Developing Article Origins and architecture of the Taj Mahal [r]: The history and design of the 17th century mausoleum complex. [e] - 11 October 2007
  • Developed Article Fossilization (palaeontology) [r]: The set of geological processes that convert organic remains into fossils. [e] - 4 October 2007
  • Developing Article Cradle of Humankind [r]: A World Heritage site in South Africa, which comprises three localities containing numerous fossil-bearing caves. [e] - 27 September 2007
  • Developing Article John Adams [r]: (1735-1826) An American Founding Father, diplomat, and the second President of the United States from 1797-1801. [e] - 20 September 2007
  • Developed Article Quakers [r]: Protestant denomination founded among English Puritans in the 17th century by George Fox and characterized by pacifism and the belief that Christ works directly in the soul of the believer; known formally as the Religious Society of Friends. [e] - 13 September 2007
  • Approved Article Scarborough Castle [r]: Ruined stone castle on the east coast of Yorkshire, England, begun in mid-twelfth century. [e] - 6 September 2007
  • Approved Article Jane Addams [r]: (1860-1935) A pioneer American settlement worker and founder of Hull House. [e] - 30 August 2007
  • Developing Article Epidemiology [r]: The branch of demography that studies patterns of disease in human or animal populations. [e] - 23 August 2007
  • Developing Article Gay community [r]: A socially constructed collective reference to those people in society who are homosexual, and who interact to some degree with other homosexual people. [e] - 16 August 2007
  • Approved Article Edward I [r]: (1272-1307) English king who conquered Wales and attempted to conquer Scotland. [e] - 9 August 2007


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