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From Citizendium, the Citizens' Compendium
The Quakers, formally known as the Religious Society of Friends, comprise a small, radical, Protestant (Christian) denomination formed during the religious upheaval in 17th century England who sought the revival of original Christianity. They earned the name "Quakers" for how members shook, or "quaked", reflecting their struggle against their inner motives "under the Light." Many migrated to America, especially to Philadelphia in the colony of Pennsylvania, which was owned by Quaker leader William Penn. Quakers were active leaders of many American reform movements past and present, especially abolition of slavery, Native Americans' rights, prohibition, women's rights, civil rights, prison reform, hospital reform, and world peace. Other famous Quakers include founder George Fox, feminist Lucretia Mott, John Woolman and Presidents of the United States Herbert Hoover and Richard Nixon.
Quakerism today is perhaps unique among Protestant denominations in lacking a written dogma describing what all Quakers believe. If one tries to generalize about "all Quakers", at least one Quaker will take exception. It is perhaps appropriate to speak of majority opinions related to Quakerism, and in doing so, a general belief in pacifism would probably be appropriate, as well as peace, nonviolence, social justice, respect for all, etc. During the American Revolutionary war, Quakers who were staunch pacifists found themselves faced with tough choices, caught between friends, relatives and neighbors needing defense during the war and their own deep-seated preference for avoiding violence. Some Quakers who did choose to participate in defending themselves ended up, ironically, facing sanction from other Quakers after the war had ended.
Originally, Quaker meetings did not generally feature a designated speaker. Any in attendance might speak if they so desired, but sometimes, no one at all spoke, and the assembly might sit quietly in contemplation for the duration of the gathering. Now, however, only a minority of Meetings belong to the unprogrammed tradition.
There are about 100,000 Quakers in the United States today. Hamm (2003) identifies seven currently contested issues--the centrality of Christ, leadership, religious authority, sexuality, identity, unity, and growth. The Quakers are heavily involved with the Peace Testimony, support for "People of Color", the American Friends Service Committee, and the Friends Committee on National Legislation. They are well known for their support of liberal arts colleges including Haverford College and Swarthmore College (near Philadelphia) and Earlham College (in Richmond, Indiana). A majority are affiliated with the Society of Friends (Five Years Meeting); others belong to the smaller Religious Society of Friends (General Conference), the Religious Society of Friends (Conservative), and the more fundamentalist Association of Evangelical Friends.
About 20,000 Quakers now live in the United Kingdom, and several thousand in Canada. Overseas missions, starting in 1903, were most successful in Africa, especially Kenya, which has 300,000 Quakers in 15 Yearly Meetings.
Despite the wide variation in beliefs in different traditions, they do communicate with each other. The Friends' World Committee for Consultation maintains a small permanent office and organises a triennial conference.
The core beliefs among American Friends in the 21st century are worship that is based on the leading of the Spirit; the ministry of all believers; decision making through the traditional Quaker business process; simplicity as a basic philosophy of life; and a commitment to education as a manifestation of Quaker faith. Quakers are considered among the historic pacifist churches, though not all branches adhere to this.
Although most Quakers revere the Bible and quote from it extensively, they do not consider it as authoritative as the Inner Light. They deny the special authority of an ordained clergy and reject all ritual in religious worship. They believe that a true church is created by the fellowship of man rather than a building people meet in to worship. Small groups of Quakers gather weekly for devotion in "meetings" where members usually sit together silently in a bare room, waiting for the Inward Christ to speak through one of them who may be inspired to "give testimony." There is no altar, no recitation of prayers, and no hymn singing at the meeting. The Bible is rejected as the authoritative word of God and replaced with the authoritative messages of the Inward Christ.
From the beginning, Quakers have had an aversion to set creeds. For this reason, while most would agree that Quakerism is a Christian tradition, there are growing numbers, especially in the United Kingdom and other places where the liberal unprogrammed tradition predominates, who do not personally regard themselves as Christian, instead identifying as non-theist, humanist, agnostic, universalist or in some cases as belonging to another religious tradition.
There are some "pastoral" Quaker meetings, however, which have "programmed" worship, with hymns and other music, scripture readings, and a sermon or message from a designated pastor, along with a brief period of silence for testimony.
In the Quaker faith, the word "testimony" is used to describe a "living truth within the human heart as it is acted out in everyday life." A testimony differs from a creed in that they are spiritually, inwardly governed by the individual and are not imposed upon the membership. They serve as basic guidelines to live by, with the flexibility to be interpreted by the individual "under the Light."
- Testimony of Peace - This is the testimony that Quakers are most known for. It stems from their belief in human equality and their conviction that love is at the heart of existence. Quakers live this testimony by being actively involved in peace activism.
- Testimony of Simplicity - The call for simple living and resisting the temptation of material dependencies in order to maintain spiritual responsiveness.
- Testimony of Truth and Integrity - The belief that truth should be spoken in all aspects of life.
- Testimony of Equality - The belief that all humans are of equal spiritual worth. It rejects the social class hierarchy and encourages equal treatment in all areas for all human beings.
FoundingSee separate article Early Quaker History
Quakerism arose during the favourable conditions created by the English Civil War. The standard account has George Fox as the motivating force, with the origins being mainly in the north of England. From 1654, the movement began expanding rapidly, to the alarm of many, and by 1658 Quaker meetings were established throughout England, and had spread to Scotland, Ireland, the Netherlands, other parts of Europe, and, notably, the American plantations.
British and Irish History
See separate article History of Quakers in Britain and Ireland
In 1660 the Church of England was re-established as the official church which led to further persecution of the Quakers. The Restoration of Charles II to the throne in 1660 was met shortly afterwards with Venner's Rising in 1661, which was a failed attempt to overthrow the monarch. Many Friends were suspected as collaborators and by March over 5,000 per imprisoned. Fox and other Quaker leaders petitioned Charles with their Declaration Concerning Wars and Fighting by declaring that "All bloody principles and practices, as to our own particulars, we utterly deny, with all outward wars and strife, and fightings with outward weapons, for any end, or under an pretense whatsoever; and this is our testimony to the whole world." William Penn supported, and may have played a part in the issuing of, James VII and II's Declaration of Indulgence, which granted freedom to all religious groups. After his overthrow the English Parliament annulled this, but then passed the Religious Toleration Act in 1689 which allowed all major Protestant groups in England at the time (apart from Unitarians), including Quakers, to practice their religion openly.
By 1690 there were about 50,000 Friends in 700 congregations in England and Wales. The center was London, with about 10,000.
Role of women
One of their most radical innovations was a more nearly equal role for women. Despite the survival of strong patriarchal elements, they believed in the spiritual equality of women, who were allowed to take a far more active role than had ordinarily existed before the emergence of radical civil war sects. Early Quaker defences of their female members were sometimes equivocal, however, and after the Restoration of 1660 the Quakers became increasingly unwilling to publicly defend women when they adopted tactics such as disrupting services. Women's meetings were organized as a means to involve women in more modest, feminine pursuits. Some Quaker men sought to exclude them from church public concerns with which they had some powers and responsibilities, such as allocating poor relief and in ensuring that Quaker marriages could not be attacked as immoral. The Quakers continued to meet openly, even in the dangerous year of 1683. Heavy fines were exacted and, as in earlier years, women were treated as severely as men by the authorities.
Friends were among the first women to petition Parliament, the monarchy, and the Anglican Church hierarchy. The Quaker women, exhibiting agency or self-sufficiency, entered into a larger political debate with these religious and secular authorities as they petitioned for the restoration of the monarchy and protested injunctions, the payment of tithes, forfeiture of property, the tendering of oaths and imprisonment, on behalf of themselves and their spiritual sisters and brothers. This shared dialectic--centering on ideas of subjugation and resistance, obedience and punishment, coercion and subversion--demonstrates how the women used their positions of spiritual authority to actively negotiate for power and to gain legal redress. From the emergence of the sect in the 1640s until the mid-1670s, the body of the Quaker woman became a site of legal and political contest as female Friends sought to display the detrimental physical and emotional effects caused by official harassment, imprisonment, and the anti-Quaker legislation. They deliberately reminded authority figures that as handmaidens selected by God, no earthly authority could gainsay their claims. From the 1670s to the end of the century, as the Society of Friends grew more institutionalized, a shift occurred as Quaker women gradually adopted intelligent and logical arguments based on carefully culled biblical examples and legal precedents. Using reasoned and calm voices, they aimed their publications at a court of public opinion to persuade their readers, as well as the authorities they opposed, of the legitimacy of their ideals and beliefs. In a period when the monarchy and Parliament fought a civil war, Quaker women recognized and positioned themselves within these larger contests of power--physically, spiritually, and intellectually--allowing them to participate in the political community in ways that women usually could not in the late Stuart Era.
Later history of Quakers in Britain
British Quakers were not subject to the schisms that affected their fellows across the Atlantic. Notable British Quakers of the nineteenth century include prison reformer Elizabeth Fry and businessmen Richard and George Cadbury, of the well-known chocolate company Cadbury's, who did much to improve the lot of their employees. During both World Wars, many Quakers became conscientious objectors, and in the Second World War, the Friends' Ambulance Unit was set up to allow Friends to reduce the suffering caused by war. Many Quakers are still politically active on an individual level, particularly with regard to peace and environmental concerns.
Migration to America
Starting in 1656 the Quaker missionaries arrived in the Massachusetts Bay Colony, a Puritan controlled colony which took a hard line against dissenting views. The authorities seized the new arrivals immediately, imprisoned them, burnt their literature, and expelled them from the colony. Laws were also passed fining ship captains who brought Friends to the colony, as well as people who defended the Friends or owned Quaker literature; the colonial leadership was more concerned with the Quaker beliefs they considered seditious, rather than their religious dissent. The missionaries were undaunted, however, and began sneaking into the colony, disregarding the persecution handed down to them. In an effort to maintain control, the colonial government enacted the death penalty for any Quaker who had been expelled from the colony three times; in August of 1659 Quaker missionaries William Robinson, John Stephenson, and Mary Dyer defied the law and were executed in Boston. In 1661 the General Assembly passed a "Cart and Whip" bill, which led to arresting Friends and transporting them to Rhode Island while whipping them in each town they passed through.
The Quakers found Rhode Island to be much more welcoming, as it was a colony founded by the Massachusetts religious exiles Roger Williams and Anne Hutchinson. There was a high rate of conversion in the colony, for Williams and Hutchinson did not try to organize their own church. By the 1670's the Quakers emerged as the dominant political and religious faction in the colony. Quakers for a while controlled West Jersey, where they created landed estates. They established prosperous farming settlements in Virginia and North Carolina.
William Penn, whose late father was owed money by King Charles II, in 1682 received ownership of Pennsylvania, which he tried to make a "holy experiment," by a union of temporal and spiritual matters. Pennsylvania made guarantees of religious freedom, and kept them, attracting many Quakers and others. Quakers took political control but were bitterly split on the funding of military operations or defenses; finally they relinquished political power. They created a second "holy experiment" by extensive involvement in voluntary benevolent associations while remaining apart from government. Programs of civic activism included building schools, hospitals and asylums for the entire city. Their new tone was an admonishing moralism born from a feeling of crisis. Even more extensive philanthropy was possible because of the wealth of the Quaker merchants based in Philadelphia. 
Originally the Quaker movement opposed abolitionism because it was a political issue that was divisive. However, in 1759 the Philadelphia Yearly Meeting came out against slaveholding by its own members, under the influence of John Woolman and others, and this helped to change the stance taken by other Yearly Meetings, including London. The rank-and-file membership comprised a large fraction of the abolitionist movement, and indeed was the single group most responsible for promoting antislavery and abolitionism in the 1770-1860 era. Sassi (2006) compares Anthony Benezet's influential 1771 antislavery tract, Some Historical Account of Guinea, with the sources from which he gleaned his information about Africa and the slave trade, the narratives published by European travelers to West Africa. Benezet, a Philadelphia Quaker and humanitarian reformer, cited the travel literature in order to portray Africa as an abundant land of decent people. His purpose was refutation of the argument that the slave trade was a beneficial transfer of people from a land of barbarism and death to regions of civilization and Christianity. However, Benezet employed the travel narratives selectively, suppressing contradictory evidence as well as controversial material that could have been used to construct an alternative depiction of African humanity. Nonetheless, Benezet's research shaped the subsequent debate over the slave trade and slavery, as antislavery writers incorporated his depiction into their rhetorical arsenal and pro-slavery defenders searched for a rebuttal.
After officially adopting a policy of emancipation in 1775, New York Quakers attempted to aid their former black servants through education, employment, and donations as compensation for their slavery.
In 1816 Virginia Quaker merchant William Hartshorne made the radical proposal that Virginia Quakers join their brethren outside the South in not participating in a slave-based economy, and not grow, buy or sell tobacco, cotton and sugar, nor sell to plantations. The merchants of the South simply could not disentangle themselves from slavery, forcing many to compromise their religious principles in order to remain economically viable, and others (especially in North Carolina) to migrate to Indiana.
Individual Midwestern Quakers were often devoted to abolitionism. The Indiana Yearly Meeting set up a Committee on the Concerns of the People of Color ("African Committee"). Both Orthodox and Hicksite had radically abolitionist splinter groups - the Indiana Yearly Meeting of Anti-Slavery Friends and Congregational, or Progressive, Friends. Midwestern Quakers were influential in providing education for black children, helping runaway slaves and freedmen who had freed themselves from kidnappers, and providing relief to the poor.
Although many Quakers became active abolitionists, most leaders feared that social activism would destroy their religious society, and therefore abolitionism, even as they made clear their opposition to slavery. In response, some abolitionists established "comeouter" churches dedicated to advancing the principle of immediatism, seeking to align churches with the American Anti-Slavery Society's agenda of racial equality. Other reform groups known as Progressive Friends advocated for women's rights. Both Anti-Slavery Friends and Progressive Friends engaged in civil disobedience. The contrast between the Society of Friends and the splinter groups demonstrates how republican religion was tied to social and political stability.
19th century schisms
The schism between orthodox and Hicksite Quakers in Philadelphia in the 1820s involved tensions between rural folk and urban sophisticates, socioeconomic class differences, and religious doctrinal disagreements. The schism spread to Quaker settlements across the country. The expansion of evangelical churches and reform societies during the Second Great Awakening forced Quakers to make choices about what was appropriate religious activity. Orthodox and Hicksite Quakers chose differently. While orthodox Quakers did not see anything wrong in associating with their evangelical neighbors, Hicksite Quakers opposed the methods of evangelical benevolence associations, believing these associations would corrupt the purity and distinctiveness of Quakers.
Disagreements over doctrine and evangelism split Quakers into the modernizing Gurneyites, who questioned the applicability of 17th century writings to the modern world, and the conservative Wilburites. Wilburites not only held to the writings of Fox and other early Friends, they actively sought to bring not only Gurneyites, but Hicksites, who had split off during the 1820s over antislavery and theological issues, back to orthodox Quaker belief.
In the late 19th century Hicksite Quakers looked optimistically toward the future despite declining membership rolls and the decline of their rural base. Advocates of a more liberal Quaker theology reconciled traditional beliefs with Higher Criticism of the Bible and a relativist view toward other faiths. Hicksites dismissed the quietism of an earlier generation and, drawing on contemporary intellectual and social currents, embraced causes such as education, ending racial discrimination, and other social reform.
The Indiana Yearly Meeting of Friends, founded in 1821 by refugees from the slave South, was the largest Society of Friends meeting in the world by 1850. Earlham College, founded 1859, became their intellectual center. It was coeducational from the first and after the Civil War the students abandoned plain dress and plain speech, and engaged in debate tournaments and intercollegiate sports that made competition respectable in the Quaker ethic. Darwinism was taught, and the modernist religion department alienated some conservatives in the community. The American Friends Service Committee proved highly popular among students, as it embodied humanitarian service and liberal attitudes toward race and world peace.
The Peace Testimony prohibited Friends as a group from supporting a war. It proved highly controversial among Quakers, for they also believed in their duty to uphold the government. There has always been a continuum of beliefs among Friends, from pacifism and peace activism, to outright military activity. The Quaker-controlled colony of Rhode Island took part in King Phillip's War of 1675-76. By contrast, the Quaker-controlled Pennsylvania colonial government blocked the formation of local militias; helpless settlers were massacred in Indian raids in the French and Indian War of the 1750s. The failure to protect settlers caused serious dissension in the Quaker community, which verged on schism. The solution adopted was for the Quakers to withdraw completely from the government.
Although the Peace testimony remained important for some Quakers, in practice the majority supported American wars, according to an Indiana case study. When the United States entered World War I in 1917 nearly all Indiana Quakers ceased any peace advocacy and probably two-thirds of eligible Indiana Quakers served in the military. In World War II, most Quakers regarded it as a just war and it is estimated that 90% served, although there were some conscientious objectors. In the late 1940s some radicals refused to register for conscription, but they were not well supported and many Quakers regarded the Korean War (1950-53) as a justifiable police action. Although opposition to the Vietnam War steadily grew, conservative Quakers were uncomfortable with the radical tendencies of conscientious objectors and some Indiana Quakers openly supported the war. No Indiana congregations endorsed civil disobedience, and two opposed it. In 1990 the Indiana Yearly Meeting of Friends declared opposition to the use of force in the Persian Gulf, but by then the majority of Indiana Quakers no longer considered themselves pacifists.
American Friends Service Committee
The American Friends Service Committee (AFSC) began in in 1917 and in 1947 received the Nobel Peace Prize. Founded to aid conscientious objectors during World War I, the AFSC continued to promote pacifism during World War II. During the Cold War, it focused on providing relief to European countries that suffered from superpower conflicts and worked for reconciliation between the United States and the Soviet Union. In 1947 the AFSC decided to become more involved politically and to rely on professionals, but it failed to effect changes in American public policy. The turn to professional lobbying diluted the Quakers' religious message.
Hanson (2005) explores the work of Henry Wilbur in the organization and outreach of the Friends General Conference (FGC) and the Committee for the Advancement of Friends Principles (CAFP) during the early 20th century. Wilbur became involved in promoting Quakerism when he moved to New York in 1896 and argued for better organizational structure for the Advancement of Friends Principles in 1899. The CAFP was created in 1902 with the mission of evangelization among Friends and others seeking religious truth, primarily through the organization of reading groups and weekend conferences. In 1905 Wilbur became the first paid staff member of the committee. Wilbur's efforts and expertise became so essential to the Quaker community that, in 1911, he became the general secretary of the FGC.
Public perception of Quakers
The perceptions outsiders have held of Quakers has included friendly and hostile elements. In his campaign for president in 1928, for example, Herbert Hoover's religion came under attack as inappropriate for a commander in chief.
The Quakers became known for their inventiveness, entrepreneurship, business acumen, and their interlocking business ties; they were trusted by outsiders who welcomed the self-censorship Quakers imposed on each other to maintain high ethical standards. Many leading British entrepreneurs of the 18th and 19th centuries were Quakers, especially merchants in London and industrialists who pioneered the Industrial Revolution in machinery, metals, textiles, railways and food products. A handful of Quaker families (the Darbys, Reynolds, Lloyds, Champions, and Rawlinsons) dominated the British iron industry. The Barclays and Lloyds were powerful bankers. Quakers were disproportionately representation among physicians, and among the scientists of the Royal Society.
There was a great deal of popular representation of Quakers---in jokes, popular magazines, novels, images, advertising and other media---from 1850 to 1920. Popular representations of Friends typically approved the devout distinctiveness attributed to stereotypical Quakers, as evidenced by their plain dress, plain speech, and refusal to swear oaths. The fact that Quakers were changing was ignored as the popular perception idealized a plain-dressed, old-fashioned representative of a national purity, piety, and unity.
The most striking images of Quakers included plain speech, abolitionism and women's rights, pacifism and war, plain dress (in the form of the Quaker bonnet), and the famous Quaker Oats character used in advertising oatmeal. The plain speech testimony seemed to acquire new and greater significance in the broader culture at the same time Quakers were abandoning the witness. Plain speech became an attractive and admirable anachronism, signifying an imagined set of old-fashioned values. The Quaker witnesses for reformism and pacifism were reshaped to suit opposing purposes. Plain dress and appearance became the attractive and malleable image of a religious sectarian, as authors, artists, and entrepreneurs fashioned a normative and vaguely religious referent for American moral superiority.
- ↑ Barbour and Frost (1988) p.28
- ↑ 
- ↑ See  Rasmussen, (1995) and Smuck, (1987)
- ↑ 
- ↑ Hamm (2003) p. 64
- ↑ Quaker Faith & Practice, 1994, 23.12. Retrieved on 2007-08-30.
- ↑ quoted Quaker Faith and Practice. The Yearly Meeting of the Religious Society of Friends (Quakers)in Britain. 1995
- ↑ Kay S. Taylor, "The Role of Quaker Women in the Seventeenth Century, and the Experiences of the Wiltshire Friends." Southern History 2001 23: 10-29. Issn: 0142-4688, not online
- ↑ Susanna Catherine Calkins, "Prophecy and Polemic: Quaker Women and English Political Culture, 1650-1700." PhD dissertation Purdue U. 2001. 318 pp. DAI 2002 62(12): 4294-A. DA3037546 Fulltext at ProQuest Dissertations & Theses
- ↑ http://www.quaker.org.uk/Templates/Internal.asp?NodeID=146514&int1stParentNodeID=93929&int2ndParentNodeID=89813&int3rdParentNodeID=89813&strAreaColor=aqua
- ↑ Barbour and Frost (1988) p.51
- ↑ Barbour and Frost (1988) p.53
- ↑ It was a separate colony that later merged with East Jersey to form New Jersey.
- ↑ Illick (1976) p 225
- ↑ Jonathan D. Sassi, "Africans in the Quaker Image: Anthony Benezet, African Travel Narratives, and Revolutionary-era Antislavery." Journal of Early Modern History 2006 10(1-2): 95-130. Issn: 1385-3783 Fulltext: Ebsco
- ↑ A. Glenn Crothers, "Quaker Merchants and Slavery in Early National Alexandria, Virginia: the Ordeal of William Hartshorne." Journal of the Early Republic 2005 25(1): 47-77. Issn: 0275-1275 Fulltext: in Project Muse
- ↑ Thomas D. Hamm et al. "'A Great and Good People': Midwestern Quakers and the Struggle Against Slavery." Indiana Magazine of History 2004 100(1): 3-25. Issn: 0019-6673 Fulltext: in History Cooperative and Ebsco
- ↑ Ryan Jordan, "Quakers, 'Comeouters,' and the Meaning of Abolitionism in the Antebellum Free States." Journal of the Early Republic 2004 24(4): 587-608. Issn: 0275-1275 Fulltext: Ebsco
- ↑ Bruce Dorsey, "Friends Becoming Enemies: Philadelphia Benevolence and the Neglected Era of American Quaker History." Journal of the Early Republic 1998 18(3): 395-428. Issn: 0275-1275 online at Jstor
- ↑ Thomas D. Hamm, "The Hicksite Quaker World, 1875-1900." Quaker History 2000 89(2): 17-41.
- ↑ Hamm (1997)
- ↑ Chuck Fager, "A Great Deep: The Peace Testimony and Historical Realism," Quaker Theology #6 Spring 2002 online edition
- ↑ "Rhode Island exiled Indians, supplied boats to the Plymouth and Massachusetts armies, blockaded Philip. . . provisioned and provided a safe haven for colonial troops, raised and dispatched soldiers, stored ammunition, transported troops . . . to battle, encouraged the mobilization and training of the local militias, deployed gunboats, manned an official garrison, contributed troops to the final search for Philip himself-–and at last, tried and executed prisoners of war." Meredith Baldwin Weddle, Walking in the Way of Peace: Quaker Pacifism in the Seventeenth Century. Oxford University Press, 2001. p. 170.
- ↑ Illick (1976) esp 201, 212-20
- ↑ Thomas D. Hamm, Margaret Marconi, Gretchen Kleinhen Salinas, and Benjamin Whitman, "The Decline of Quaker Pacifism in the Twentieth Century: Indiana Yearly Meeting of Friends as a Case Study." Indiana Magazine of History 2000 96(1): 44-71. Issn: 0019-6673 Fulltext: Ebsco
- ↑ H. Larry Ingle, "The American Friends Service Committee, 1947-49: the Cold War's Effect" Peace & Change 1998 23(1): 27-48. Issn: 0149-0508 Fulltext: Ebsco
- ↑ Roger Hansen, "'Hungering and Thirsting for the Contact with Kindred Spirits': Henry Wilbur and the Committee for the Advancement of Friends' Principles, 1900-1914." Quaker History 2005 94(2): 44-55. Issn: 0033-5053 not online
- ↑ Grubb, M. (ed) Quakers Observed in prose and verse: an anthology 1656 - 1986. William Sessions. 1993
- ↑ Barbour and Frost (1988) p 86-88; Ann Prior and Maurice Kirby, "The Society of Friends and the Family Firm, 1700-1830." Business History 1993 35(4): 66-85. Issn: 0007-6791 Fulltext: Ebsco
- ↑ Walvin, The Quakers: Money and Morals. (1997).
- ↑ Connerley, (2006)
- ↑ Connerley, (2006)