From Citizendium, the Citizens' Compendium
- See also changes related to Edinburgh, or pages that link to Edinburgh or to this page or whose text .
Subtopics - Places
- Arthur's Seat: The plug of a long extinct volcano that forms the largest hill in Edinburgh.
- Royal Palace of Holyroodhouse: An official residence of the monarch, located in Edinburgh, Scotland.
- John Knox House: 15th century town house in Edinburgh, it displays exhibits about John Knox.
- Greyfriars Bobby: Nineteenth-century Syke Terrier in Edinburgh, Scotland who became famous for keeping vigil by his master's grave every day (barring extreme weather) for fourteen years.
- Greyfriars Kirk: Now 'Greyfriars Tolbooth & Highland Kirk', is a parish kirk (church) of the Church of Scotland and one of the oldest surviving buildings in Edinburgh outside the Old Town, built between 1602 and c.1620.
- Scottish Parliament: Legislative body of Scotland, having authority over many aspects of Scottish political life including Health and Education; re-created by the Act of Devolution 1997.
- : Cantilever railway bridge, built in 1883-1890, that connects Edinburgh to Fife
- Royal Mile: The streets in Edinburgh's Old Town that run from Holyrood Palace to Edinburgh Castle.
- University of Edinburgh: Founded in 1582, one of the leading academic institutions in the UK.
- Auld Reekie: Old nickname for Edinburgh, Scotland, meaning old smokey.
Subtopics - Societies
- The Edinburgh Phrenological Society: Established in 1820, became the leading phrenological society of the U.K. and established Edinburgh as a major centre of phrenology in the 19th century.
- : Scotland's National Academy of Science & Letters; created in 1783 by Royal Charter for “the advancement of learning and useful knowledge.”
- : Founded in 1883 for "the mutual improvement of its members in the Mathematical Sciences, pure and applied."
- : Local history society, founded in 1908 with the aim of recording the vanishing evidence of Edinburgh's history, its buildings and its past inhabitants.
- : The oldest continuing Society of its kind, founded in 1890.
- : Founded in 1834 with the aim of stimulating public interest in geology and the advancement of geological knowledge.
- Edinburgh Free Thinkers' Zetetic Society: Formed in 1820 to provide support for the republican and freethinking publisher Richard Carlile and his family after Carlile had been imprisoned for blasphemy. ,
Subtopics - People
- Thomas Aikenhead: The last person to be executed for blasphemy in the UK.
- : (1745-1794) sexual therapist, and seller of quack remedies. 
- John Knox: Scottish clergyman (1514-1572), leader of the Scottish Reformation and founder of Scottish Presbyterianism.
- William Brodie: (1741 - 1788) Respectable Edinburgh citizen who led a gang of burglars and died on a gallows that he himself had designed.
- William Burke: (1792 - 1829) Prisoner hanged in Edinburgh's Lawnmarket in 1829 for his role in the West Port Murders.
- : (8 December 1542 – 8 February 1857) Mary Stuart (or Stewart), Queen of Scotland (1542–67) and queen consort of France (1559–60); forced to flee to England after a rebellion among Scottish nobles, she was finally beheaded as a Roman Catholic threat to the English throne.
- Helen Duncan: (1897 – 1956), a Scottish medium who became the last person to be imprisoned in the United Kingdom under the Witchcraft Act of 1735.
- Thomas Muir: (1765 – 1799) Scottish political reformer, and the most notable victim of political repression in the years after the French Revolution.
- Earl Haig: (Sir Douglas Haig, 1861–1928); during World War I, commander-in-chief of the British Expeditionary Forces in France and Flanders from December 1915 until the Armistice.
- Thomas Ruddiman: (1674 - 1757) Scottish classical scholar and grammarian; author of Rudiments of the Latin Tongue.
- : (1880-1958), campaigner for women's rights and pioneer of birth control.
- Thomas Blacklock: (1721 - 1791) The"blind poet", an early supporter of Robert Burns.
- Robert Burns: The National poet of Scotland (1759-96); writer of Auld Lang Syne.
- Robert Fergusson: (1750 - 1774) Scottish poet whose verse inspired Robert Burns.
- William McGonagall: (1825-1902) Scotland's (and possibly the world's) worst poet.
- Allan Ramsay (1686–1758): Poet who wrote mainly in the Scots vernacular, and is best known for his pastoral verse-play "The Gentle Shepherd".
- : (1724 – 1812) One of the most famous Scottish Gaelic poets, best known for his poem "Moladh Beinn Dòbhrainn" (Praise for Ben Doran).
- : (1740 - 1795) Scottish author, best known as Samuel Johnson’s biographer, and for the detailed and frank diaries that he kept for much of his life.
- : (1802 – 1871) Scottish journal editor and publisher who was the anonymous author of Vestiges of the Natural History of Creation.
- : (1859-1930) Author, creator of Sherlock Holmes. 
- Daniel Defoe: (ca. 1659-1661 – 1731) Novelist and journalist, best known as the author of Robinson Crusoe.
- John Home: (1722–1808) Scottish poet and dramatist.
- Alexander McCall-Smith: Add brief definition or description
- Henry MacKenzie: (1745 - 1831), Scottish writer, nicknamed 'The Man of Feeling' after the title of his best known novel.
- : (1960 - ) Crime writer, creator of Inspector Rebus
- : Author, creator of Harry Potter.
- : (1771 – 1832) Scottish historical novelist popular throughout Europe in his lifetime; his novels include Ivanhoe, Rob Roy, 'and The Heart of Midlothian.
- : (1918-2006); her best-known novel The Prime of Miss Jean Brodie is set in an Edinburgh girls' school - the central character is a progressive feminist who admires Mussolini, Franco and Hitler.
- Robert Louis Stevenson: British 19th-century writer whose works included Kidnapped, Treasure Island and Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde.
- James Tytler: (1745-1804) notably feckless and debt ridden Scottish writer, who was the first Briton to travel in a hot-air balloon,
Artists and Musicians
- : (1728-1792) Neoclassical architect, interior designer and furniture designer.
- : (1784-1868) Scottish painter and engraver; illustrated the poems of Robert Burns and the novels of Sir Walter Scott.
- : (1739-1795) Architect remembered for his design for the layout of Edinburgh's New Town.
- Alexander Campbell Mackenzie: (22 August 1847 – 28 April 1935) Scottish composer best known for his oratorios, violin and piano pieces and works for the stage.
- William Henry Playfair: One of the greatest Scottish architects of the 19th century.
- Allan Ramsay: (1713–1784) Scottish portrait-painter of the "Rococo Era".
- : (1756 – 1823) Scottish portrait painter.
- David Wilkie: (1785 – 1841) Scottish painter.
Academics and Scientists
- Joseph Black: (1728 – 1799) Scottish physicist and chemist, known for his discoveries of latent heat, specific heat, and carbon dioxide
- Hugh Blair: (1718 – 1800) Professor of Rhetoric and Belles Lettres at the University of Edinburgh, and Presbyterian preacher whose sermons and writings made a major contribution to the Scottish Enlightenment.
- James Burnet, Lord Monboddo: (1714 - 1799) Scottish judge and anthropologist, a leading figure in the Scottish Enlightenment of the 18th century, best remembered as a founder of comparative historical linguistics.
- James Croll: (1821 - 1890) Scottish physical scientist who was the leading proponent of an astronomical theory of climate change in the 19th century.
- William Cullen: (1710-1790) The leading British physician of the 18th century.
- Charles Darwin: (1809 – 1882) English natural scientist, most famous for proposing the theory of natural selection. Darwin began training as a physician in Edinburgh in 1825 at the age of 16; his father, Robert, and grandfather Erasmus had both been trained there, but Charles found the lectures "intolerably dull," and he left after two years.
- Erasmus Darwin: (1731-1802) Physician, poet, philosopher, botanist, and naturalist; grandfather of Charles Darwin.
- Peter Higgs: (1929 - ) Particle-physics theorist whose work predicts the existence of the 'Higgs boson.'
- Henry Home, Lord Kames: (1696 – 1782) Scottish philosoper and adcocate, and a leading member of the Scottish Enlightenment; notably, he argued that the politics of Scotland were not based on loyalty to Kings or Queens but on property ownership.
- David Hume: (1711—1776) Scottish philosopher, economist, and historian.
- Adam Ferguson: (1723-1816) philosopher and historian of the Scottish Enlightenment, sometimes called the "father of sociology."
- John Forbes: (1787-1861), physician and medical journalist
- : (1835-1924) Scottish geologist famous for his attempts to elucidate in detail the history of the topography of a country.
- : (1839–1915) Scottish geologist, best known for The Great Ice Age and its Relation to the Antiquity of Man.
- James Hutton: (1726–1797) Scottish farmer and naturalist, who is known as the founder of modern geology.
- James Lind: (1716–1794) Scottish physician and pioneer of naval hygiene, whose recommendation that fresh citrus fruit and lemon juice be added to the diet of sailors saw scurvy eliminated from the British Navy.
- Joseph Lister: (1827 – 1912) Surgeon who promoted the idea of sterile surgery.
- Colin MacLaurin: (1698–1746) Scottish mathematician who published the first systematic exposition of Newton's calculus.
- James Clerk Maxwell: (1831 – 1879) Scottish physicist best known for his formulation of electromagnetic theory and the statistical theory of gases.
- Alexander Monro primus: (1697 – 1767) Anatomist; the founder of Edinburgh Medical School.
- Alexander Monro secundus: (1733 - 1817) Professor of Anatomy at the University of Edinburgh, known as the discoverer of the lymphatic system.
- John Playfair: (1748-1819) Scottish mathematician, best known for his explanation and promotion of the work of James Hutton
- William Robertson: (1721-1793) Historian, most notable for his 'History of Scotland'
- : (1749 - 1815) Scottish chemist, best known for the discovery of nitrogen.
- : (1850 – 1935) Physiologist who coined the words "insulin" and "endocrine" and who demonstrated the existence of adrenaline.
- : (1811 – 1870) Scottish doctor who discovered the anaesthetic properties of chloroform and introduced it for general medical use.
- Adam Smith: Scottish moral philosopher and political economist (1723-1790), a major contributor to the modern perception of free market economics; author of Wealth of Nations (1776).
- Dugald Stewart: (1753 - 1828) Scottish philosopher of the "common-sense" school who played a major role in making the "Scottish philosophy" predominant in 19th century Europe; known for his theory of taste.
- Tony Blair: Former Labour Party politician and Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (1997-2007).
- Gordon Brown: Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and Leader of the Labour Party from June 2007 to May 2010; previously Chancellor of the Exchequer from May 1997.
- James Connolly: (June 5, 1868 – May 12, 1916) A leader of the Easter Rising in 1916 in Ireland. Connolly was born in the Cowgate - then a slum area of Edinburgh's Old Town, nicknamed "Little Ireland."
- Sir John Sinclair, 1st Baronet: (1754-1835) Scottish politician, writer on finance and agriculture and the first person to use the word 'statistics.' (In The Statistical Accounts of Scotland)
- Scotland: A country that forms the northernmost part of the United Kingdom; population about 5,200,000.
- Great Britain: The largest part of the United Kingdom, comprising England, Scotland, Wales and islands immediately off their coasts.
- United Kingdom: Constitutional monarchy which includes England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland.
- European Union: Political and economic association of 28 European states.
Town and cities
- Glasgow: The largest city in Scotland, located on the River Clyde and a great shipbuilding centre during the Industrial Revolution; population about 581,000.
- : A educational and tourist center (est 1991 pop 63,000) located at the north end of the Great Glen on the River Ness in northwest Scotland; for a long time, the center of the Scots Highland region.
- : A seaport (est. 1995 pop. 168,000) situated on the Firth of Tay, an inlet of the North Sea, in Scotland.
- : A city (2011 pop. 222,793) and commercial port located on the North Sea in north-east Scotland.
- Scottish Enlightenment: A period in 18th century Scotland characterized by a great outpouring of intellectual and scientific accomplishments.
- Scots language: A West Germanic variety spoken in southern Scotland and parts of Northern Ireland, which has been identified as either a separate language from English or (over-simplistically) a dialect of English, according to various cultural and linguistic perspectives; shares much with English due to a shared linguistic history, but has developed separately for many centuries.
- Scottish Gaelic language: A Goidelic Celtic language spoken in Scotland and Canada.
- Scottish English: All varieties of English spoken in Scotland; may not include Scots where this is identified as a language in its own right.
- English language: A West Germanic language widely spoken in the United Kingdom, its territories and dependencies, Commonwealth countries and former colonial outposts of the British Empire; has developed the status of a global language.