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- Abraham : Biblical patriarch and founder of Abrahamic monotheism.
- Aramaic : A Semitic language spoken in much of the Middle East outside the Arabian Peninsula in ancient times.
- Authors of the Bible : Individuals who have authored or co-authored literature that has appeared in the various scriptural canons of Judaism and of Christianity.
- Christianity : The largest world religion, which centers around the worship of one God, his son Jesus Christ, and his Holy Spirit.
- Circumcision : In male humans, removal, by cutting, of the foreskin (prepuce) from the penis; may be for cultural, medical, or religious reasons, or as a rite of passage
- Cyrus the Great : (580-529 B.C.) First Archaemedid emperor; founded Persia by uniting two Iranian tribes, the Medes and the Persians.
- Egypt : A country in the northeastern corner of Africa, bordering Sudan, Libya, the Mediterranean Sea and the Red Sea
- Genesis : First book of the Torah and the Hebrew Bible.
- Haredi Judaism : The most religiously orthodox variants of Judaism with Lithuanian, Hasidic and Sephardic Haredi Judaism.
- Hasidic Judaism : A stream within Orthodox Judaism, originating in the 18th century, that emphasizes spirituality and role of the rebbe (teacher).
- Hebrew Bible : consists of religious works categorized into the Torah (Law), Nevi'im (Prophets), and Ketuvim (Writings).
- Hebrew language : A semitic language used by ancient Israelites and Jewish communities, and revived as a modern language by Israeli Jews.
- Herschel Grynszpan : (1921—1940s) German political assassin and Jewish victim of The Holocaust.
- Historical Jesus : As distinct from the Jesus of Christian faith, the Jesus described by critically-aware historical studies.
- Jewish views of Jesus : Add brief definition or description
- Judaism : Monotheistic religion of the Jewish people based on the Torah.
- Karaites : a Jewish movement characterized by the predominant reliance on the Tanakh as scripture and the rejection of the Oral Law of rabbinic Judaism
- Law : Body of rules of conduct of binding legal force and effect, prescribed, recognized, and enforced by a controlling authority.
- Literature : The profession of “letters” (from Latin litteras), and written texts considered as aesthetic and expressive objects.
- Lithuania : Former Soviet republic (population c. 3.6 million; capital Vilnius) bordered by Latvia, Belorussia, Poland and the Russian Federation, and with a short coastline on the Baltic Sea.
- Monotheism : Belief in only one God.
- Morocco : An Arab monarchy of western North Africa, nonaligned but generally moderate, with a slow-growing economy
- Moses : Add brief definition or description
- Orthodox Judaism : The branch within Judaism that stresses strict interpretation and practice of the Torah as expressed in the Talmud.
- Pantheism : A religious and philosophical doctrine that everything is of an all-encompassing immanent abstract God; or that the universe, or nature, and God are equivalent.
- Portugal : South-west European republic (population c. 10.7 million; capital Lisbon) on the western side of the Iberian Peninsula, with a long Atlantic coastline to its west and bordering Spain to the north and east.
- Qur'an : The sacred book of Islam, consisting of revelations to Muhammad.
- Religion : Belief in, and systems of, worshipful dedication to a superhuman power or belief in the ultimate nature of existence.
- Roman Empire : The period from the ascension of Augustus Caesar to the fall of the Empire.
- Rosh Hashanah : The Jewish High Holiday commonly known as the Jewish New Year.
- Sephardi Jews : Add brief definition or description
- The Bible : The Old and New Testaments (in Christianity) or just the Tanakh or Hebrew Bible (in Judaism).
- Yeshiva : Add brief definition or description
- Yiddish language : West Germanic language commonly spoken by people of Jewish heritage originating from Central and Eastern Europe and now settled in several parts of the World.