- Africa : Continent stretching over the equator, hosting deserts, tropical jungles and savannah as well as over fifty nations; population about 900,000,000.
- Middle East : A geographical region in Asia that also contains small parts of Europe and Africa.
- Maghreb : The Muslim-majority, Arabic and Berber-speaking countries of North Africa, bounded on the north by the Mediterranean Sea and often by the Sahara Desert on the south.
- Alexander the Great : King of Macedon who conquered the Persian Empire in the late 4th century BCE.
- Great Pyramid of Giza : Largest and oldest of the pyramids in the Giza Necropolis of Greater Cairo, Egypt; was the tallest building for nearly 4,000 years, and is the largest pyramid ever constructed.
- Félix d'Hérelle : (1873 – 1949) - A French-Canadian bacteriologist, and the discoverer of bacteriophages.
- Imhotep : The Egyptian architect, alive during the years 2650-2600 B.C, responsible for the first pyramid.
- Nile River : One of the longest rivers in the world at about 6,695km from its source in the south to the Mediterranean Sea in the north.
- Suez Canal : Add brief definition or description
- Sinai Peninsula : Add brief definition or description
- Gaza Strip : 26-mile-long Middle Eastern coastal region long the Mediterranean Sea, bordering Egypt and Israel; population about 1.4 million Palestinian people, governed by Hamas since June 2007.
- Israel : Country in the Middle East.
- Libya : North African revolutionary republic led by Muammar Gaddafi, which normalised diplomatic ties with the West in 2003; fourth-largest African nation, population about 6,000,000.
- Sudan : A nation in East Africa/Horn of Africa, with the largest land area of any country in Africa, and near-continuous civil wars since British independence in 1956; effectively a federation of Arab and African parts, with the southern region voting for independence in 2011.
- Egyptian Neopaganism : A modern religious revival attempting to reconstruct the beliefs and practices of ancient Egypt.
- Al-Azhar University : Located in Cairo,Egypt, while associated with conservative Sunni, generally considered the world's premier educational institution in Islamic studies
- Arab Spring : Protest movements in the Arab world that seek the removal of oppressive governments.
Modern leadership & opposition
- President of Egypt : Add brief definition or description
- Arab League : Add brief definition or description
- Muslim Brotherhood : An Islamic political group, formed in Egypt and increasingly part of the political system there, which has worldwide branches; it may be moving from a Salafist ideology to a more mulilateral one
Military and security
- Arab-Israeli Conflict : The series of wars and military tension between the State of Israel and Arab states; often includes the Israel-Palestine Conflict, a remnant of the wars between countries
- 1967 Arab-Israeli War : Often called the "Six Days War", a decisive Israeli victory, starting with a preemptive attack, against Arab states preparing for battle; the West Bank, East Jerusalem, Gaza Strip and Golan Heights were captured
- 2009 Gaza conflict : Operation Cast Lead by Israeli Defense Forces moving into Gaza, and the effects of this operation
- Al-Jihad : An Egyptian insurgent group, whose name translated as Holy Struggle
- Ibn Sheikh al-Libi : A Libyan member of al-Qaeda whose interrogation results, later recanted, were a large part of the U.S. justfication for starting the Iraq War because Iraq had weapons of mass destruction; he was in various CIA programs of extraordinary rendition and interrogation
- Ahmed Agiza : An Egyptian citizen, rendered to Egypt by Swedish and U.S. personnel, where he was imprisoned for a 1999 in absentia conviction of belonging to an illegal organization, Egyptian Islamic Jihad; the removal from Sweden did not involve extradition and may have violated the refoulement provision of the Convention against Torture.
- Extrajudicial detention, Egypt : General policies of modern Egypt for extrajudicial detention either by the Egyptian authorities directly, or where Egypt receives prisoners from third countries
- Extraordinary rendition, U.S., Bill Clinton Administration : Extraordinary rendition of suspects of counterterrorism programs in the Clinton Administration, with brief U.S. interrogation but primary coercive interrogation in third countries
- Extraordinary rendition, U.S., George W. Bush Administration : Policy, legal interpretation and examples, under the George W. Bush Administration, of extraordinary rendition, U.S., primarily related to the Administration's war on terror
- Sami Mohy El Din Muhammed Al Hajj : A Sudanese journalist for the Al Jazeera news agency, held at Guantanamo Bay detention camp for suspicion of acting as a terrorist courier; released in 2008
- Arabic language : is a Semitic language used by Islam and is an official or co-official language in the 22 countries which together make up the Arab World.
- British Empire : The worldwide domain controlled by Britain from its origins about 1600
- CIA activities in the Middle East and South Asia : Add brief definition or description
- Frank Wisner II : (1938-) Retired U.S. Foreign Service Officer who served as a special envoy to Hosni Mubarak in 2011; board member, Partnership for a Secure America, National Security Network; past U.S. Ambassador to Egypt, the Philippines and Zambia; son of Frank G. Wisner
- Nicholas Veliotes : Now a consultant to a Washington law firm, a Foreign Service Officer who was U.S. Ambassador to Jordan and Egypt and Assistant Secretary of State for Near Eastern and South Asian Affairs; member, Council on Foreign Relations and Middle East Institute; Advisory council, J Street