- Africa : Continent stretching over the equator, hosting deserts, tropical jungles and savannah as well as over fifty nations; population about 900,000,000.
- East Africa : Add brief definition or description
- Central African Republic : Landlocked African nation, with Bangui its capital; formerly a French colony which became independent in 1960 (population c.4,500,000).
- Chad : A landlocked country in East Africa and the Sahel, forming the western border of the Darfur Conflict, and having newly discovered oil running by pipeline to Cameroon on the Atlantic coast of West Africa
- Egypt : A country in the northeastern corner of Africa, bordering Sudan, Libya, the Mediterranean Sea and the Red Sea
- Ethiopia : Among the oldest countries of the world, from which Muslim-majority Eritrea split after a civil war; Coptic Christian-majority state in East Africa
- Kenya : A country of 38 million in East Africa.
- South Sudan : North-eastern African nation established in 2011; formerly the southern region of Sudan.
- Uganda : Landlocked republic in East Africa, located on the equator, bordering the northern and western shores of Lake Victoria.
- Khartoum : National capital of Sudan and of the northern Sudanese part of the federation; with its twin city Omdurman, the largest metropolitan area
- Omdurman : Twin city of the Sudanese capital, Khartoum; generally the more prestigious living area; site of the defeat of the Mahdist forces by British troops in the 19th Century Battle of Omdurman
- Port Sudan : Red Sea port of Sudan, reached by modern highway and railroad cut through rugged territory to Khartoum; landing of major undersea fiber optic cable to Saudi Arabia; oil terminal
- Babanusa : Town in the western part of northern Sudan, the last safe rail terminal before the routes into Darfur and South Sudan
- El Fasher : Provincial capital in Darfur, with the best, if limited, airport in the region
- Nyala : Provincial and regional capital in Darfur, near the border with Chad; Sudanese terminus of the unsafe railroad that continues into Chad; linked by dirt road to El Fasher; much more limited airfield
- Bentiu : Add brief definition or description
- Bor : Add brief definition or description
- Juba : Add brief definition or description
- National Congress Party : The coalition of political elements in North Sudan that has historically held the political power since the end of the First Sudanese Civil War
- National Democratic Alliance : Add brief definition or description
- Popular Congress Party : Sudanese Islamist party led by Hassan al-Turabi; has called for President Omar al-Bashir to surrender himself to the International Criminal Court
- Sudan People's Liberation Movement : Add brief definition or description
- Umma Party : Add brief definition or description
- African Union : Continental organization, which succeeded the Organisation of African Unity on September 9, 1999.
- John Danforth : Attorney, Bryan Cave; Member, Global Leadership Foundation; US Senator (R-Missouri) 1976-95; U.S. Ambassador to the United Nations 2004-05; Special Envoy for Peace to Sudan, 2001
- J. Scott Gration : U.S. Special Envoy to Sudan, 2009-; major general, U.S. Air Force, retired, who grew up in Kenya and Democratic Republic of Congo; campaign advisor to Hillary Clinton and then campaign national security adviser to Barack Obama
- Intergovernmental Authority on Development : Add brief definition or description
- International Criminal Court : A permanent tribunal, established by treaty among over 120 nations but not part of the United Nations, for trying individuals for crimes against humanity; a number of major countries do not accept its authority
- World Food Programme : Add brief definition or description
- Mahdi wars : Add brief definition or description
- First Sudanese civil war : Add brief definition or description
- Dinka-Nuer reconciliation : Add brief definition or description
- Second Sudanese civil war : Add brief definition or description
- Darfur conflict : A low-technology war, with massive casualties and refugees, in the Darfur area of western Sudan, representing a cultural and economic conflict between traditional pastoralists and nomads, the nomads being supported by the power elite of north Sudan; all parties involved are Muslim, but of African and Arab ethnicity
- Janjaweed : Literally meaning "devil on a horse", the janjaweed are nomadic Baggara Arabs that are supported against the pastoralists of Darfur by the power elite of North Sudan.
- Sudanese Liberation Army : Add brief definition or description
- Justice and Equality Movement : Add brief definition or description
- Greater Nile Petroleum Operating Company : Add brief definition or description
- Gum arabic : Add brief definition or description
- Saddam Hussein : (1937–2006) Deposed and executed ruler of Iraq.
- U.S. intelligence activities in Africa : Activities of the United States intelligence community in Africa
- Lord's Resistance Army : An insurgent group, considered exceptionally brutal by African standards and with its top leaders under indictment by the International Criminal Court, which operates in Uganda, Southern Sudan and possibly Darfur