Linguistics/Related Articles

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A list of Citizendium articles, and planned articles, about Linguistics.
See also changes related to Linguistics, or pages that link to Linguistics or to this page or whose text contains "Linguistics".

Parent topics

  • Science [r]: The organized body of knowledge based on non–trivial refutable concepts that can be verified or rejected on the base of observation and experimentation [e]
  • Social science [r]: Any of a number of academic disciplines which study human social behavior, institutions and relations. [e]
  • Language [r]: A type of communication system; this term is used in linguistics, computer science and other fields to refer to different systems, including 'natural language' in humans, programming languages run on computers, and so on. [e]

Subtopics

  • Grammar (linguistics) [r]: The structural rules that govern the composition of sentences, phrases, and words in any language; alternatively, the system of language itself, i.e. the principles common to all languages. [e]
  • Natural language [r]: A communication system based on sequences of acoustic, visual or tactile symbols that serve as units of meaning. [e]
  • Biolinguistics [r]: An interdisciplinary field that explores human natural language’s fundamental properties, development in individuals, use in thinking and communicating, brain implementation, genetic underpinnings, and evolutionary origins. [e]

Subdisciplines

Core areas

  • Phonology [r]: In linguistics, the study of the system used to represent language, including sounds in spoken language and hand movements in sign language. [e]
  • Syntax [r]: The study of the rules, or 'patterned relations', that govern the way words combine to form phrases and phrases to form sentences. [e]
  • Morphology [r]: The study of word structure; the study of such patterns of word-formation across and within languages, and attempts to explicate formal rules reflective of the knowledge of the speakers of those languages. [e]
  • Semantics [r]: The subfield of the study of language which focuses on meaning. [e]
  • Pragmatics [r]: Branch of linguistics concerned with language in use or the study of meaning as it arises from language occurring in context. [e]
  • Phonetics [r]: Study of speech sounds and their perception, production, combination, and description. [e]

Fields of linguistics

  • Cognitive linguistics [r]: School of linguistics that understands language creation, learning, and usage as best explained by reference to human cognition in general. [e]
  • Creolistics [r]: The study of creole and pidgin languages. [e]
  • Sociolinguistics [r]: Branch of linguistics concerned with language in social contexts - how people use language, how it varies, how it contributes to users' sense of identity, etc. [e]
  • Evolutionary linguistics [r]: Branch of linguistics that concerns itself with how the human faculty of language evolved; multidisciplinary field involving neurolinguistics, cognitive science, anthropology and others. [e]
  • Psycholinguistics [r]: Study of the psychological and neurobiological factors that enable humans to acquire, use, comprehend and produce language. [e]
  • Neurolinguistics [r]: Add brief definition or description

  • Generative linguistics [r]: School of thought within linguistics that makes use of the concept of a generative grammar. [e]
  • Psycholinguistics [r]: Study of the psychological and neurobiological factors that enable humans to acquire, use, comprehend and produce language. [e]
  • Anthropological linguistics [r]: The study of language through human genetics and human development. [e]
  • Computational linguistics [r]: Defined by the Association for Computational Linguistics as:"...the scientific study of language from a computational perspective. Computational linguists are interested in providing computational models of various kinds of linguistic phenomena." [e]
  • Writing system [r]: A set of signs used to represent a language, such as an alphabet, or a set of rules used to write a language, such as conventions of spelling and punctuation. [e]
  • Lexis [r]: Total bank of words and phrases of a particular language, the artifact of which is known as a lexicon. [e]
  • Multilingualism [r]: The state of knowing two or more languages, either in individuals or whole speech communities. [e]

Language acquisition
  • Language acquisition [r]: The study of how language comes to users of first and second languages. [e]
  • First language acquisition [r]: Study of the processes through which humans acquire language, specifically first languages, which studies infants' acquisition of their native language. [e]
  • Second language acquisition [r]: Process by which people learn a second language in addition to their native language(s), where the language to be learned is often referred to as the 'target language'. [e]
  • Language attrition [r]: The loss of a first or second language or a portion of that language by individuals. [e]
  • Critical period [r]: Limited time in which an event can occur, usually resulting in some kind of transformation. [e]
  • Critical period hypothesis [r]: Hypothesis which claims that there is an ideal 'window' of time to acquire language in a linguistically rich environment, after which this is no longer possible. [e]

Applied linguistics

Linguists

Notable figures

Other researchers

  • Martha Young-Scholten [r]: linguist specialising in the phonology and syntax of second language acquisition (SLA); senior lecturer at the University of Newcastle upon Tyne, UK. [e]

History of linguistics

Descriptions of language

  • Linguistic typology [r]: Subfield of linguistics that studies and classifies languages according to their structural features. [e]
  • Descriptive linguistics [r]: The work of analyzing and describing how language is spoken (or how it was spoken in the past) by a group of people in a speech community. [e]
  • Historical linguistics [r]: The study of how languages change over time, and linguistic patterns within that change. [e]

  • Comparative linguistics [r]: (also known as comparative philology) A branch of historical linguistics that uses a number of methods of comparing languages to establish their historical relatedness. [e]
  • Linguistic variation [r]: The range of differences between varieties of language. [e]
  • Corpus linguistics [r]: The study of language as expressed in samples (corpora) or 'real world' text. [e]

Attitudes to language and linguistic study

  • Linguistic prescriptivism [r]: The laying down or prescribing of normative rules for the use of a language, or the making of recommendations for effective language usage. [e]


Other related topics

  • Cognitive science [r]: The scientific study either of mind or intelligence and includes parts of cognitive psychology, linguistics and computer science. [e]

Communication and discourse