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- Abdominal aortic aneurysm : Aneurysm that involves the descending aorta from the diaphragm to the split at the iliac arteries.
- Absolute risk reduction : Decrease in risk of a given activity or treatment in relation to a control activity or treatment.
- Bell's Palsy : Condition that involves the facial nerve (VII cranial nerve) and results in the paralysis of one side of the face.
- C-reactive protein : Globulin that appears in the blood in certain acute inflammatory conditions, such as rheumatic fever, bacterial infections, and neoplastic diseases.
- Colorectal cancer : Malignancy that arises from the lining of either the colon or the rectum.
- Cost-benefit analysis : A method of evaluating projects that takes account of the preferences of those affected.
- Deep venous thrombosis : The formation of a blood clot ("thrombus") in a deep vein.
- Diabetes mellitus type 2 : Medical condition characterised by glucose intolerance and hyperglycemia
- Digital object identifier : Unique label for a computer readable object that can be found on the internet, usually used in academic journals.
- Dyspepsia : Chronic or recurrent pain or discomfort centered in the upper abdomen.
- Evidence-based medicine : The conscientious, explicit and judicious use of current best evidence in making decisions about the care of individual patients.
- Gastroesophageal reflux disease : A condition in which stomach acid repeatedly flows upwards into the esophagus and throat.
- Heart failure : Defective cardiac filling and/or impaired contraction and emptying, resulting in the heart's inability to pump a sufficient amount of blood to meet the needs of the body tissues or to be able to do so only with an elevated filling pressure.
- Herpes zoster : Herpes virus that is responsible for chicken pox, which results in a painful blistery red rash that is confined to one side of the body.
- Hydroxymethylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase inhibitor : HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors which reduce 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl CoA and lower cholesterol synthesis.
- Hypercholesterolemia : Presence of an abnormally large amount of cholesterol in the cells and plasma of the circulating blood.
- Influenza : An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract; the viruses are discussed in separate articles
- Irritable bowel syndrome : A disorder with chronic or recurrent colonic symptoms without a clearcut etiology.
- Migraine headache : Vascular type of headache, marked by severe cranial vault pain lasting several hours, resulting from intracranial, extracranial, or psychogenic causes.
- Minnesota Colon Cancer Control Study (PMID 7580661) : Randomized controlled trial of 46,551 participants aged 50 to 80 years in Minnesota, for screening of colorectal cancer using the stool guaiac test.
- Obesity : Excessive stores of body fat.
- Odds ratio : Ratio of the relative incidence (odds) of a target disorder in an experimental group relative to the relative incidence in a control group; reflects how the risk of having a particular disorder is influenced by the treatment (odds ratio of 1 means that there is no benefit of treatment compared to the control group).
- Opioid analgesic : Synthetic narcotic that has opiate-like activities, which induces analgesia by mimicking endogenous opioids, at opioid receptors in the brain.
- Placebo : A treatment or drug, administered by, or at the orders of, a health professional, that the professional knows will have no physiologic effect
- Preoperative care : Preparation and management of a patient prior to surgery.
- Prostate cancer : Malignant tumour of glandular origin in the prostate, most presenting as adenocarcinomas.
- Quantitative literacy : The knowledge and skills required to apply arithmetic operations (United States Department of Education).
- Randomized controlled trial : Method used to ensure objectivity when testing medical treatments.
- Relative risk ratio : Proportion of diseased people amongst those exposed to the relevant risk factor divided by the proportion of diseased people amongst those not exposed to the risk factor.
- Relative risk reduction : Epidemiological measure calculated by dividing the absolute risk reduction by the control event rate.
- Septic shock : Serious medical condition caused by decreased tissue perfusion and oxygen delivery as a result of infection and sepsis.