From Citizendium, the Citizens' Compendium
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- Adiposopathy : The dysfunction of fat cells.
- Ascorbic acid : An organic acid with antioxidant properties whose L-enantiomer is called vitamin C.
- Astrocyte : A non-neural cell type in the brain and spinal cord of vertebrates.
- Basic metabolic profile : A set of commonly ordered blood chemistry tests: electrolytes, glucose, creatinine and blood urea nitrogen
- Carbohydrate metabolism : The various biochemical processes responsible for the formation, breakdown and interconversion of carbohydrates in living organisms.
- Cell (biology) : The basic unit of life, consisting of biochemical networks enclosed by a membrane.
- Cellular respiration : A series of metabolic processes by which living cells produce energy through the oxidation of organic substances.
- Citric acid cycle : A series of enzyme-catalysed chemical reactions of central importance in all living cells that use oxygen as part of cellular respiration.
- Cryoprotectant : A substance that protects biological tissue from freezing damage.
- Diabetes (disambiguation) : Add brief definition or description
- Diabetes mellitus type 2 : Medical condition characterised by glucose intolerance and hyperglycemia
- Diabetes mellitus : Relative or absolute lack of insulin leading to uncontrolled carbohydrate metabolism.
- Diabetic neuropathy : Negative effects on the nervous system that can be caused by diabetes mellitus, some of which may necessitate amputation.
- Emergency Medical Technician : Paramedical personnel trained to provide basic emergency care and life support under the supervision of physicians and/or nurses.
- Fermentation (biochemistry) : The process of deriving energy from the oxidation of organic compounds, such as carbohydrates, using an endogenous electron acceptor, which is usually an organic compound.
- Gluconeogenesis : Formation of glucose, especially by the liver, from noncarbohydrate precursors, such as amino acids, lactate, pyruvate, and the glycerol portion of fats.
- Glucose-6-phosphate : (G6P), is glucose that has been phosphorylated on carbon 6. The conversion from glucose to G6P is the first step of glycolysis for energy production in cells.
- Glycogenesis : Conversion of glucose to glycogen, in which glucose molecules are added to chains of glycogen for storage, which is stimulated by insulin from the pancreas.
- Glycogenolysis : Breakdown conversion of glycogen to glucose, which occurs in the liver and is stimulated by glucagon from the pancreas and adrenaline from the adrenal medulla.
- Glycogen : Polysaccharide that is the main form of carbohydrate storage in animals and occurs primarily in the liver and muscle tissue.
- Glycolysis : A biochemical pathway by which a molecule of glucose is oxidized to two molecules of pyruvate.
- Hemochromatosis : Hereditary disorder affecting iron metabolism in which excessive amounts of iron accumulate in the body tissues, characterized by diabetes mellitus, liver dysfunction, and a bronze pigmentation of the skin.
- Heterocycle : A cyclized chemical with nitrogen, oxygen or sulfur within the ring structure.
- Hexose : A monosaccharide with six carbon atoms, having the chemical formula C6H12O6.
- Impaired fasting glucose : Fasting blood glucose is elevated above what is considered normal levels but is not high enough to be classified as diabetes mellitus.
- Insulin : Hormone that regulates blood glucose levels.
- Ion-selective electrodes : A transducer (sensor) which converts the activity of a specific ion dissolved in a solution into an electrical potential which can be measured by a voltmeter or pH meter.
- Lactic fermentation : A form of fermentation that occurs in animal cells in the absence of oxygen.
- Lactose intolerance : Due to a decrease of the lactase enzyme in cells lining the small intestine of adults and a concomitant inability to break down or metabolize lactose.
- Lactose : Slightly sweet disaccharide composed of two monosaccharides, glucose and galactose linked together, and found in milk.
- List of organic compounds : Add brief definition or description
- Macromolecular chemistry : The study of the physical, biological and chemical structure, properties, composition, and reaction mechanisms of macromolecules.
- Maximum life span : Measure of the maximum amount of time one or more members of a group has been observed to survive between birth and death.
- Metabolism : The modification of chemical substances by living organisms.
- Neisseria meningitidis : Heterotrophic Gram-negative diplococcal bacterium best known for its role in meningitis, and other forms of meningococcal disease such as meningococcemia.
- Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine : Award conferred once a year by the Swedish Karolinska Institute, for physiology or medicine, since 1901.
- Photosynthesis : The process by which an organism captures and stores energy from sunlight, energy it uses to power its cellular activities.
- Plant (organism) : A eukaryotic organism, grouped into the kingdom Plantae, that typically synthesizes nutrients through photosynthesis and possesses the inability to voluntarily move.
- Proteus vulgaris : Rod-shaped, Gram negative bacterium that inhabits the intestinal tracts of humans and animals, and known to cause urinary tract infections and wound infections.
- Pyrococcus furiosus : Extremophilic species of Archaea, having an optimum growth temperature of 100°C and being one of the few organisms identified as possessing enzymes containing tungsten.
- Radiochemistry : The chemistry of radioactive materials
- Red blood cells : Also called erythrocytes; a type of disc-shaped blood cell that contain hemoglobin, and the body's principal means of delivering oxygen to the body's cells via the blood, and the removal of carbon dioxide wastes that result from metabolism.
- Refineries : Industrial manufacturing facilities composed of a group of chemical engineering unit processes and unit operations used for the conversion certain raw materials such as petroleum crude oil, mined ores, sugar or salt into finished products of value or for the refining and purification of partially converted raw materials into finished products.
- Streptococcus pyogenes : Spherical Gram-positive pathogenic bacterium that grows in long chains and is the cause of Group A streptococcal infections, and fatal septicemias.
- Survival of the Fattest : A book by Stephen C. Cunnane that outlines why fat babies are important to human brain evolution.
- Toxicology : Study of the nature, effects, and detection of poisons and the treatment of poisoning.
- Vitamin C : Required by a few mammalian species, including humans and higher primates. It is water-soluble and is usually obtained by eating fruits and vegetables; associated with scurvy (hence its chemical name, ascorbic acid).
- Vitrification : A process of converting a material into a glass-like amorphous solid that is free from any crystalline structure, either by the quick removal or addition of heat, or by mixing with an additive.