From Citizendium, the Citizens' Compendium
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- Adenosine triphosphate : A molecule sometimes called the "energy currency" of a cell
- Alanine cycle : A way for muscle cells to use amino acids as energy sources, while transferring to the liver the expensive task of dealing with the ammonium released from those amino acids.
- Amino acid : Biochemical with an amino group, a carboxyl group, a hydrogen atom, and a side chain bonded to a central carbon.
- Anabolism : Biological processes that build larger molecules from smaller ones, and increase the size of bones, organs and muscles.
- Carbohydrate metabolism : The various biochemical processes responsible for the formation, breakdown and interconversion of carbohydrates in living organisms.
- Catabolism : The metabolic process that breaks down molecules into smaller units.
- Citric acid cycle : A series of enzyme-catalysed chemical reactions of central importance in all living cells that use oxygen as part of cellular respiration.
- Diabetes mellitus : Relative or absolute lack of insulin leading to uncontrolled carbohydrate metabolism.
- Fatty acid metabolism : Oxidative degradation of saturated fatty acids in which two-carbon units are sequentially removed from the molecule with each turn of the cycle, and metabolized so that it can be used as a source of energy in aerobic respiration.
- Glucose-6-phosphate : (G6P), is glucose that has been phosphorylated on carbon 6. The conversion from glucose to G6P is the first step of glycolysis for energy production in cells.
- Glucose : A monosaccharide (or simple sugar) and an important carbohydrate in biology, used by the living cell as a source of energy and metabolic intermediate.
- Glycolysis : A biochemical pathway by which a molecule of glucose is oxidized to two molecules of pyruvate.
- Glyoxylate cycle : Metabolic pathway in some orgnaisms which uses acetyl CoAs to synthesize carbohydrates.
- Kidney : Organs in the dorsal region of the vertebrate abdominal cavity, functioning to maintain proper water and electrolyte balance, regulate acid-base concentration, and filter the blood of metabolic wastes, which are then excreted as urine.
- Metabolism : The modification of chemical substances by living organisms.
- Vasopressin receptor : Cell surface receptors to which vasopressins bind or interact in order to modify the function of the cells. Two types of vasopressin receptor exist, the V1 receptor in the vascular smooth muscle and the V2 receptor in the kidneys.
- Vasopressin : A hormone also called (arginine vasopressin, (AVP); formerly known as antidiuretic hormone, ADH), produced in the hypothalamus secreted from the posterior pituitary that causes kidneys to concentrate urine to conserve water, also causes vasoconstriction.