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- Albert Gallatin : 1761-1849, Swiss born American statesman and anthropologist
- Anthropology : The holistic study of humankind; from the Greek words anthropos ("human") and logia ("study").
- Authors of the Bible : Individuals who have authored or co-authored literature that has appeared in the various scriptural canons of Judaism and of Christianity.
- Biology : The science of life — of complex, self-organizing, information-processing systems living in the past, present or future.
- Civil law : A system of law which starts with abstract rules, which judges must then apply to the various cases before them.
- Denis Diderot : Enlightenment philosophe and Editor in Chief of the Encyclopédie.
- Edinburgh University : Founded in 1582, one of the leading academic institutions in the UK.
- Encyclopaedia Britannica : Reference work published in 27 editions, starting with the first edition published from 1768 to 1771, to the most recent edition printed in 2007.
- Existentialism : Twentieth century philosophical and cultural trend that sees human life as being self-authored, rejecting pre-written essences of human life.
- France, history : Add brief definition or description
- France : Western European republic (population c. 64.1 million; capital Paris) extending across Europe from the English Channel in the north-west to the Mediterranean in the south-east; bounded by Belgium, Luxembourg, Germany, Switzerland, Italy, Monaco, Andorra and Spain; founding member of the European Union. Colonial power in Southeast Asia until 1954.
- French Revolution : The revolutionary episode in France that deposed the king and the aristocracy, created a republic, and included a period of terror, in which thousands were killed or driven into exile.
- Friedrich Schleiermacher : (1768 – 1834) One of the most influential Protestant theologians in the history of Christianity.
- Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel : (1770–1831) German idealist philosopher, most famous for writings on Geist and dialectic.
- Government : The system by which a community or nation is controlled and regulated. A government is a person or group of persons who govern a political community or nation.
- History : Study of past human events based on evidence such as written documents.
- Humanism : A group of ethical theories that place the human being at the center of our moral concern. Also, an intellectual trend towards such ethical theories that occurred in the Western Renaissance and Reformation.
- Immanuel Kant : (1724–1804) German idealist and Enlightenment philosopher who tried to transcend empiricism and rationalism in the Critique of Pure Reason.
- Isaac Newton : (1642–1727) English physicist and mathematician, best known for his elucidation of the universal theory of gravitation and his development of calculus.
- Law : Body of rules of conduct of binding legal force and effect, prescribed, recognized, and enforced by a controlling authority.
- Lead : Chemical element number 82, a corrosion-resistant, dense, ductile heavy metal known to cause neurological problems.
- Liberalism : Economic and political doctrine advocating free enterprise, free competition and free will.
- Manning Clark : Australian historian; author of the six-volume History of Australia, published 1962-1987.
- Paracelsus : (1493-1541) An early Renaissance alchemist, philosopher and physician credited with founding the modern fields of pharmacology and toxicology.
- Poland, history : Add brief definition or description
- Protestantism : The branch of Christianity that separated from the Roman Catholic Church during the Reformation of the 16th century.
- Public : Shared by, open or available to everyone, well or generally known, universally available or without limit, done or made on behalf of the community as a whole, open to general or unlimited viewing or disclosure, frequented by large numbers of people or for general use, or places generally open or visible to all pertaining to official matters or maintained at taxpayer expense.
- Renaissance : Cultural movement that spanned roughly the 14th to the 17th century, beginning in Florence in the Late Middle Ages and later spreading to the rest of Europe.
- Scottish Enlightenment : A period in 18th century Scotland characterized by a great outpouring of intellectual and scientific accomplishments.
- Spanish Armada : The failed seaborn invasion of England by Spain in 1588.
- Thomas Jefferson : (1743-1826) Third President of the United States; author of the Declaration of Independence and the Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom; father of the University of Virginia
- Truth : The accuracy or factuality of a statement; has been explained by philosophers as correspondence to reality, coherence with a body of thought, and in several other ways; also (with a capital "T"), deep, important wisdom.
- Wonders of the world : Lists of especially remarkable artificial or natural structures of worldwide importance
- World history : The study and teaching of connections within the global community.