User:Louise Valmoria/Sandbox

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Articles At Work On


  • Stub Genesis probe: NASA spacecraft sent to collect samples of solar wind. [e]


Chemistry -Chemical Elements


  • Developing Article Prague: "Capital city of the Czech Republic and, historically, capital of the medieval Bohemian kingdom." [e]
  • Stub Charles Bridge: 14th century bridge in Prague. [e]
  • Stub Melbourne: Capital city of the state of Victoria, Australia. [e]
  • Stub Metronome, Letna Hill: Large reverse pendulum, in Prague, the Czech Republic, built on Letna Hill 1991 by artist David Černý for a national fair. [e]



  • Stub Jurisprudence: Philosophy and theory of law and legal judgment. [e]
  • Developing Article European Community Law: Unique legal system which operates alongside the laws of Member States of the European Community, and has direct effect within the legal systems of its Member States. [e]
  • Stub Constitution: A set of rules that are the ultimate source of legal authority and powers for a state. [e]



Visual Arts

  • Stub Adam Kraft: "Adam Kraft, (? - Jan 1509), German architect and sculptor from the German Late Gothic period." [e]
  • Developing Article Albrecht Dürer‎: (1471 - 1528) A Nuremberg-based engraver, painter, mathematician and art theoretician. [e]
  • Stub Antoni Gaudí‎: Architect (1852-1926) considered to be the leader of the Spanish modernisme movement. [e]
  • Stub Dieric Bouts: (c 1415- 1475) the first Dutch painter to depict moods and emotions. [e]
  • Developing Article Nuremberg Chronicle: Add brief definition or description
  • Stub Peter Parler: (1330 ? - July 13, 1399) A German master architect best known for his work on Charles Bridge and St. Vitus' Cathedral in Prague. [e]
  • Stub Sgraffito: Decoration produced on pottery or ceramic by scratching through a surface of plaster or glazing to reveal a different colour underneath. [e]
  • Stub Sondergotik: Style of Late Gothic architecture prevalent in Austria, Bavaria, and Bohemia between 1350 and 1550. [e]
  • Developing Article 2046 (film): Film that indirectly explores the return of the administration of Hong Kong to China following British rule. [e]

Theme Weeks

Theme Weeks: There are various 'world days' and events that are coming up that inspire me to get some biographies, collections of works or just some articles. Feel free to check in on this list, add your own, or collaborate with me when these articles go live.

World Poetry Day (March 21)

(A range of some of my favourites, to those who feature heavily in my library for various reasons; focus here will be on world poets as I am sure that the more famous classic poets will be already covered by fellow Citizens)

Anna Akhmatova

František Branislav

František Branislav, born 16 March 1900 in Beroun, Czechoslovakia, died 25 July 1968 in Prague. Czech poet, children's author and translator of Scandanavian works. He translated Nettenes natt (Night of all Nights) by Norwegian poet Bjorn Rongen and also wrote a study on the Swedish language.


Poetry: Bílý kruh (1924), Na rozcestí (1927), Větrná růžice (1930), Na houslích jara, podzimu... (1933), Věčná země (1939), Dým ke hvězdám (1940), Pozdrav Polsku (1950), Milostný nápěv (1951), Krásná láska (1952), Večer u studny (1955), Prsten na cestu (1957), Cesta přátelství (úvod a verše k fotografiím z cesty A. Novotného do SSSR, 1958), Věnec z trávy (1960), Moře (1961), Řecká sonatina (1962), Divertimento a kantiléna (1964), Sluneční kámen (1969), Ezopovy bajky (1973)

Childrens' Poetry: Píseň dětství (1952), Zlatý déšť (1955), Hliněný džbánek (1957), Zelené roky (1959), Přijďte k nám, muzikanti (1960), Naše a vaše (1960), Ratolístka (1961), Modrý oblázek (1962), Ryby, rybky, rybičky (1963), Malá říkadla (1963), Polní růžičky (1966), Hodina zvonů (výbor, 1989), Básně dětem (soub. vyd., 1971, 3 sv.)

S uzlíčkem stříbra (1947), Básně (1953), Lyrika (1957), Verše (1960), Básně (1968), Pramen pod hvězdami (1975), Tiše sním (1979), Uzlíček stříbra (1980), Z rosy a studánek (1980)

Translations: Bjorn Rongen: Noc všech nocí (1951) (English for: Night of all Nights) Bjorn Rongen was a Norwegian poet, who published Nettenes natt in 1940.

Compilations: Věrnému vojáku Jonášovi (sb. na pamět J. Jonáše, velitele české legionářské roty Nazdar, 1928, s A. Rážem a F. Hamplem), Básnický almanach 1958 (1959)

Charles Baudelaire

Paul Eluard

Solomon Ibn Gabriol

Johann Wolfgang von Goethe

James Joyce

Louise Labe

Primo Levi

Federico Garcia Lorca

Antonio Machado

Stéphane Mallarmé

Stéphane Mallarmé (March 18, 1842 – September 9, 1898), born Étienne Mallarmé. French poet, critic and leader of the Symbolist movement with Paul Verlaine.

Mallarmé, Stéphane. Igitur/ Divagations/ un Coup de Des, French & European Pubns (1976)

Remembering the Sound of Words: Mallarmé, Proust, Joyce, Beckett by Adam Piette (1996);

Jane Mayo Roos, Jeanine Parisier Plottel, Mary Ann Caws, and Yves Bonnetoy. A Painter's Poet: Stephane Mallarme & His Impressionist Circle (1999)

Thomas A Williams. Mallarme and the Language of Mysticism

Pablo Neruda

Octavio Paz

Adelia Prado

Salvatore Quasimodo

Rainer Maria Rilke

Arthur Rimbaud

Friedrich von Schiller

Alfonsina Storni

Paul Valery

Paul Verlaine

Francois Villon

International Years, Decades ...


2008: International Year of ...

Green Earth




2009: International Year of ...

Astronomy - it will be the 400th anniversary of the first use of the telescope for astronomical purposes by Galileo.

Natural Fibres


International Decades

  • Note to self: try to make a overlapping timeline out of these? Hmm
  • 2001-2010 - Decade to Roll Back Malaria in Developing Countries, Particularly in Africa
  • 2001-2010 - Second International Decade for the Eradication of Colonialism
  • 2001-2010 - International Decade for a Culture of Peace and Non-violence for the Children of the World
  • 2003-2012 - United Nations Literacy Decade: Education for All
  • 2005-2014 - Second International Decade of the World's Indigenous People
  • 2005-2014 - United Nations Decade of Education for Sustainable Development
  • 2005-2015 - International Decade for Action, 'Water for Life'

Other things on my List

La Oreja de Van Gogh - Favourite Band, Write-A-Thon Sep 2008

Australian Ballet

Melbourne Symphony Orchestra

Jiri Kylian - choreographer

Prague Castle

Something about toll road infrastructure, design, management ... etc. such as, what is a gantry and how does electronic tolling differ from satellite tolling and how is that an improvement on manual tolling?

  • Talk to my sources in mining / resources / electrical transmission if they can point me to a good engineering library ...

Question of the day?

Apparently a four year old asks 450 questions a day. How many questions am I short, and from where in Citizendium can I find the answers?

Hallowe'en is coming up. What is the origins of this tradition? How is it celebrated? How many 'spooky' tangents can I come up with from this topic?

* All Souls' Day ; Día de los Muertos (I guess this would be Day of the Dead in English?_ ; other traditions that commemorate the dead?
* All right, and as the day has lost a bit of its spiritual signicance for costumes and candy, and how can one ignore the lore and history regarding the seance, ouija boards, and the cultural background behind the legend of the vampire?

triboluminescence: Oct 24's 'what the...? that is so cool and weird' question of the day

When I blow out a candle in the living room, how does this activate the smoke detector in the foyer? How come the smoke detector can't tell if I've overburned the ginger on the oven (though it might have been the rangehood)?

If 'you are what you eat', does that mean I want to be an acai berry when I grow up? (no, not a 'serious' question, that was just an excuse to create redlinks)

Eight-tracks, records, and cassettes are now niche markets, or rather former audio recording staples of the past. How did they work? How does a digital recorder, that transfers them to something like a CD or a DVD, work? What other portable data storage items (? what's the word for that?) existed out there?

Where'd my references about the organic growth of medieval cities nick off to?

Science and Law In The News

or stuff that I just find interesting

Spring Cleaning - Chemistry

Chemical Elements to get a start on

(from Special:Wanted Pages)

Template:Elem Infobox What I need to get started - blank template below so I stop accidentally copying and pasting over the properties of gold ;)

Notes on what goes where in infobox:

no1, no2, no3: oxidation states (q: what if there are more than four oxidation states?) as of Oct 26 (to be reviewed?): long period table groups are written as actinide and lanthanide to highlight the group. Electron config: how about Xe 4f10 6s2 instead of the full notation? that'd work ... note to self: check consistency across all elements


1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s1 11,4,d
[ ? ] Transition Metal:
Metallic, malleable, ductile, conductor of electricity
brass, bronze
construction, electrical transmission, industry, coinage, jewelry
    • Mining and Extraction
    • Copper in the Human Body
    • Plant Extraction
    • Industrial Applications
    • Recycling (?)
238.02891 6
1s2 2s2p6 3s2p6d10 4s2p6d10f14 5s2p6d10f3 6s2p6d1 7s2 Actinides,7,f
[ ? ] Actinoid:
metallic, dense, ductile, malleable, radioactive, pyrophoric
uraninite, autinite, carnotite, samarkite
    • Mining and Extraction
    • Uses
    • Nuclear Power
    • Disposal
    • Natural Sources
    • Applications and Uses
95.94 6
(Kr) 4d5 5s1 6,5,d
[ ? ] 6:
low toxicity, metallic
molybdenum sulfide
alloying agent, catalyst, biological trace element

** Additional oxidation state +2
** 1s2 2s2p6 3s2p6d10 4s2p6d5 5s1 is (Kr) 4d5 5s1 

Molybdenum is an essential trace element in humans, animals and plants.

References at regarding biological properties (note for wording: much of this information is still yet to be scientifically confirmed)

162.500 3

[Xe] 4f10 6s2 Lanthanides,6,f
[ ? ] Lanthanides:
in nuclear reactors

* Note to self - create redirect from colour to color, former does not yet have a page. all done - thanks Chris

  • Note to self - get diagrams for below colour in transition metals (and learn to spell like an American??)

Colour in transition metals

Transition metal complexes are usually coloured. The colour results from absorption of photons in the visible region of light.

Substances that appear black absorb all wavelengths of light in the visible spectrum. Those that appear white reflect all wavelengths. Substances that appear colourless absorb light in the infrared or ultraviolet regions of the light spectrum, therefore do not appear coloured to the human eye. All cations, anions and oxoanions of the representative elements are colourless.

This can be explained by the octahedral geometry of complex ions, and by the location of atomic orbitals in the d shell.

(diagram needed - complex ion with d orbitals between the axes)

(animation - seems to capture idea best - electron approaching d orbitals, splitting energy between orbitals closer to the ligands and those further away)

Transition metals that are coloured are those who have partially filled d orbitals. Colourless complexes of transition metals are those which have no d electrons present, for example Sc3+, or when all d orbitals are filled. It is only partially filled d orbitals that result in colour because there is space for an electron to be promoted from the lower energy d orbitals to the higher energy d orbitals.

An example of colours produced by some transition complexes is below.

Table: Colours of the hydrated complex ions of the first transition series.[3] (Note to self - [| this how one makes a table]

Colour Ions and number of 3d electrons
Colourless Sc3+ (0) Cu+ (10) Zn2+ (10)
Red Co2+ (7) Mn2+ (5)
Green Fe2+ (6) Ni2+ (8) V3+ (2) Cr3+ (3)
Purple Ti3+ (1)
Violet V2+ (3) Cr3+ (3) Mn3+ (4) Fe3+ (5)
Blue Cr2+ (4) Co3+ (6) Cu2+ (9)
Yellow [FeCl]2+ (5)

The energy difference Δ is called the crystal-field splitting energy.

ΔE = hv = hc/λ = splitting energy = Δ

Within transition metals Δ is often in the range found in the frequencies of visible light. This means that an electron can be excited from one of the lower-energy d orbitals to a higher energy d orbital by visible light.

Complementary colours - definition

Complementary colours are two colours that combine to produce white light. Therefore if a substance only absorbs a wavelength, it will reflect the wavelength of the complementary colour and appear that colour to the eyes. For example, permanganate appears purple because it absorbs green light.

Absorbed wavelength in nm (colour) Observed colour
400 (violet) Greenish yellow
450 (blue) Yellow
490 (blue-green) Red
570 (yellow-green) Violet
580 (yellow) Dark blue
600 (orange) Blue
650 (red) Green

The presence of transition metals in gemstones results in the varied colours of gems.

Crystal-field splitting theory

Crystal-field theory is a theory of chemical bonding, first explored by physicists in the early 1930s in relation to the spectra of ionic crystals.

A limitation of crystal-field theory is that it cannot explain the colour spectrum of complex ions or the splitting order of all ligands.


Wavelength absorption and emission by atoms is used in spectroscopy to identify elements.