- 1 Articles At Work On
- 2 Theme Weeks
- 3 Other things on my List
- 4 Spring Cleaning - Chemistry
Articles At Work On
- Genesis probe: NASA spacecraft sent to collect samples of solar wind.
- La Oreja de Van Gogh: Spanish pop band from Donostia-San Sebastian.
- Divine Comedy (band): Irish pop band, and the alias of frontman Neil Hannon.
- Joy Division: Rock band formed in 1976 in Salford, England, and viewed as one of the forerunners of gothic.
Chemistry -Chemical Elements
- Potassium: A very reactive, silvery white alkali metal, chemical element 19 with symbol K.
- Copper: A transition metal chemical element.
- Prague: "Capital city of the Czech Republic and, historically, capital of the medieval Bohemian kingdom."
- Charles Bridge: 14th century bridge in Prague.
- Melbourne: Capital city of the state of Victoria, Australia.
- Metronome, Letna Hill: Large reverse pendulum, in Prague, the Czech Republic, built on Letna Hill 1991 by artist David Černý for a national fair.
- Jurisprudence: Philosophy and theory of law and legal judgment.
- European Community Law: Unique legal system which operates alongside the laws of Member States of the European Community, and has direct effect within the legal systems of its Member States.
- Constitution: A set of rules that are the ultimate source of legal authority and powers for a state.
- Chavacano language: Several varieties of Spanish-based creole used in the southern Philippines.
- Czech language: Add brief definition or description
- Emotion: A psychophysiological process underlying the interpretation of situations or objects by an animal.
- Motivation: The stimulus, incentive, or inducement to act or react in a certain way.
- Adam Kraft: "Adam Kraft, (? - Jan 1509), German architect and sculptor from the German Late Gothic period."
- Albrecht Dürer: (1471 - 1528) A Nuremberg-based engraver, painter, mathematician and art theoretician.
- Antoni Gaudí: Architect (1852-1926) considered to be the leader of the Spanish modernisme movement.
- Dieric Bouts: (c 1415- 1475) the first Dutch painter to depict moods and emotions.
- Nuremberg Chronicle: Add brief definition or description
- Peter Parler: (1330 ? - July 13, 1399) A German master architect best known for his work on Charles Bridge and St. Vitus' Cathedral in Prague.
- Sgraffito: Decoration produced on pottery or ceramic by scratching through a surface of plaster or glazing to reveal a different colour underneath.
- Sondergotik: Style of Late Gothic architecture prevalent in Austria, Bavaria, and Bohemia between 1350 and 1550.
- 2046 (film): Film that indirectly explores the return of the administration of Hong Kong to China following British rule.
- Skirt: An outerwear garment having the general shape of a cylinder, open at both ends and tapered, then fastened about the waist of the wearer. hanging down covering and encircling both legs simultaneously.
- Capoeira: An Afro-Brazilian martial art that incorporates dance and game elements.
- Caipirinha: Add brief definition or description
- Elevator: A mechanical device used for vertical transport.
- SimCity: A simulation computer game based on the complexities of town planning.
- SimTower: Add brief definition or description
Theme Weeks: There are various 'world days' and events that are coming up that inspire me to get some biographies, collections of works or just some articles. Feel free to check in on this list, add your own, or collaborate with me when these articles go live.
World Poetry Day (March 21)
(A range of some of my favourites, to those who feature heavily in my library for various reasons; focus here will be on world poets as I am sure that the more famous classic poets will be already covered by fellow Citizens)
František Branislav, born 16 March 1900 in Beroun, Czechoslovakia, died 25 July 1968 in Prague. Czech poet, children's author and translator of Scandanavian works. He translated Nettenes natt (Night of all Nights) by Norwegian poet Bjorn Rongen and also wrote a study on the Swedish language.
Poetry: Bílý kruh (1924), Na rozcestí (1927), Větrná růžice (1930), Na houslích jara, podzimu... (1933), Věčná země (1939), Dým ke hvězdám (1940), Pozdrav Polsku (1950), Milostný nápěv (1951), Krásná láska (1952), Večer u studny (1955), Prsten na cestu (1957), Cesta přátelství (úvod a verše k fotografiím z cesty A. Novotného do SSSR, 1958), Věnec z trávy (1960), Moře (1961), Řecká sonatina (1962), Divertimento a kantiléna (1964), Sluneční kámen (1969), Ezopovy bajky (1973)
Childrens' Poetry: Píseň dětství (1952), Zlatý déšť (1955), Hliněný džbánek (1957), Zelené roky (1959), Přijďte k nám, muzikanti (1960), Naše a vaše (1960), Ratolístka (1961), Modrý oblázek (1962), Ryby, rybky, rybičky (1963), Malá říkadla (1963), Polní růžičky (1966), Hodina zvonů (výbor, 1989), Básně dětem (soub. vyd., 1971, 3 sv.)
S uzlíčkem stříbra (1947), Básně (1953), Lyrika (1957), Verše (1960), Básně (1968), Pramen pod hvězdami (1975), Tiše sním (1979), Uzlíček stříbra (1980), Z rosy a studánek (1980)
Translations: Bjorn Rongen: Noc všech nocí (1951) (English for: Night of all Nights) Bjorn Rongen was a Norwegian poet, who published Nettenes natt in 1940.
Compilations: Věrnému vojáku Jonášovi (sb. na pamět J. Jonáše, velitele české legionářské roty Nazdar, 1928, s A. Rážem a F. Hamplem), Básnický almanach 1958 (1959)
Stéphane Mallarmé (March 18, 1842 – September 9, 1898), born Étienne Mallarmé. French poet, critic and leader of the Symbolist movement with Paul Verlaine.
Mallarmé, Stéphane. Igitur/ Divagations/ un Coup de Des, French & European Pubns (1976)
Remembering the Sound of Words: Mallarmé, Proust, Joyce, Beckett by Adam Piette (1996);
Jane Mayo Roos, Jeanine Parisier Plottel, Mary Ann Caws, and Yves Bonnetoy. A Painter's Poet: Stephane Mallarme & His Impressionist Circle (1999)
Thomas A Williams. Mallarme and the Language of Mysticism
International Years, Decades ...
2008: International Year of ...
2009: International Year of ...
- Note to self: try to make a overlapping timeline out of these? Hmm
- 2001-2010 - Decade to Roll Back Malaria in Developing Countries, Particularly in Africa
- 2001-2010 - Second International Decade for the Eradication of Colonialism
- 2001-2010 - International Decade for a Culture of Peace and Non-violence for the Children of the World
- 2003-2012 - United Nations Literacy Decade: Education for All
- 2005-2014 - Second International Decade of the World's Indigenous People
- 2005-2014 - United Nations Decade of Education for Sustainable Development
- 2005-2015 - International Decade for Action, 'Water for Life'
Other things on my List
La Oreja de Van Gogh - Favourite Band, Write-A-Thon Sep 2008
Jiri Kylian - choreographer
Something about toll road infrastructure, design, management ... etc. such as, what is a gantry and how does electronic tolling differ from satellite tolling and how is that an improvement on manual tolling?
- Talk to my sources in mining / resources / electrical transmission if they can point me to a good engineering library ...
Question of the day?
Apparently a four year old asks 450 questions a day. How many questions am I short, and from where in Citizendium can I find the answers?
Hallowe'en is coming up. What is the origins of this tradition? How is it celebrated? How many 'spooky' tangents can I come up with from this topic?
* All Souls' Day ; Día de los Muertos (I guess this would be Day of the Dead in English?_ ; other traditions that commemorate the dead? * All right, and as the day has lost a bit of its spiritual signicance for costumes and candy, and how can one ignore the lore and history regarding the seance, ouija boards, and the cultural background behind the legend of the vampire?
When I blow out a candle in the living room, how does this activate the smoke detector in the foyer? How come the smoke detector can't tell if I've overburned the ginger on the oven (though it might have been the rangehood)?
Eight-tracks, records, and cassettes are now niche markets, or rather former audio recording staples of the past. How did they work? How does a digital recorder, that transfers them to something like a CD or a DVD, work? What other portable data storage items (? what's the word for that?) existed out there?
Where'd my references about the organic growth of medieval cities nick off to?
Science and Law In The News
or stuff that I just find interesting
- earth monitoring system
- satellites - artificial vs. natural?
- medical isotopes
- multiple sclerosis
- personal genomics
- down syndrome
- emergence theory
- urban planning
- Lisbon treaty
- Government of the Czech Republic - surely this needs a better name, but in any case ... that leads to no-confidence vote, seeing as this is about the fourth time they've had one!
- Presidency of the European Union - possibly needs a better name too
Spring Cleaning - Chemistry
Chemical Elements to get a start on
(from Special:Wanted Pages)
Template:Elem Infobox What I need to get started - blank template below so I stop accidentally copying and pasting over the properties of gold ;)
Notes on what goes where in infobox:
no1, no2, no3: oxidation states (q: what if there are more than four oxidation states?) as of Oct 26 (to be reviewed?): long period table groups are written as actinide and lanthanide to highlight the group. Electron config: how about Xe 4f10 6s2 instead of the full notation? that'd work ... note to self: check consistency across all elements
- Mining and Extraction
- Copper in the Human Body
- Plant Extraction
- Industrial Applications
- Recycling (?)
- Mining and Extraction
- Nuclear Power
- Natural Sources
- Applications and Uses
** Additional oxidation state +2 ** 1s2 2s2p6 3s2p6d10 4s2p6d5 5s1 is (Kr) 4d5 5s1
Molybdenum is an essential trace element in humans, animals and plants.
References at cancer.org regarding biological properties (note for wording: much of this information is still yet to be scientifically confirmed) http://www.cancer.org/docroot/ETO/content/ETO_5_3x_Molybdenum.asp
- Note to self - get diagrams for below colour in transition metals (and learn to spell like an American??)
Colour in transition metals
Transition metal complexes are usually coloured. The colour results from absorption of photons in the visible region of light.
Substances that appear black absorb all wavelengths of light in the visible spectrum. Those that appear white reflect all wavelengths. Substances that appear colourless absorb light in the infrared or ultraviolet regions of the light spectrum, therefore do not appear coloured to the human eye. All cations, anions and oxoanions of the representative elements are colourless.
This can be explained by the octahedral geometry of complex ions, and by the location of atomic orbitals in the d shell.
(diagram needed - complex ion with d orbitals between the axes)
(animation - seems to capture idea best - electron approaching d orbitals, splitting energy between orbitals closer to the ligands and those further away)
Transition metals that are coloured are those who have partially filled d orbitals. Colourless complexes of transition metals are those which have no d electrons present, for example Sc3+, or when all d orbitals are filled. It is only partially filled d orbitals that result in colour because there is space for an electron to be promoted from the lower energy d orbitals to the higher energy d orbitals.
An example of colours produced by some transition complexes is below.
|Colour||Ions and number of 3d electrons|
|Colourless||Sc3+ (0)||Cu+ (10)||Zn2+ (10)|
|Red||Co2+ (7)||Mn2+ (5)|
|Green||Fe2+ (6)||Ni2+ (8)||V3+ (2)||Cr3+ (3)|
|Violet||V2+ (3)||Cr3+ (3)||Mn3+ (4)||Fe3+ (5)|
|Blue||Cr2+ (4)||Co3+ (6)||Cu2+ (9)|
The energy difference Δ is called the crystal-field splitting energy.
ΔE = hv = hc/λ = splitting energy = Δ
Within transition metals Δ is often in the range found in the frequencies of visible light. This means that an electron can be excited from one of the lower-energy d orbitals to a higher energy d orbital by visible light.
Complementary colours - definition
Complementary colours are two colours that combine to produce white light. Therefore if a substance only absorbs a wavelength, it will reflect the wavelength of the complementary colour and appear that colour to the eyes. For example, permanganate appears purple because it absorbs green light.
|Absorbed wavelength in nm (colour)||Observed colour|
|400 (violet)||Greenish yellow|
|580 (yellow)||Dark blue|
The presence of transition metals in gemstones results in the varied colours of gems.
Crystal-field splitting theory
Crystal-field theory is a theory of chemical bonding, first explored by physicists in the early 1930s in relation to the spectra of ionic crystals.
A limitation of crystal-field theory is that it cannot explain the colour spectrum of complex ions or the splitting order of all ligands.
ApplicationsWavelength absorption and emission by atoms is used in spectroscopy to identify elements.
- František Branislav biography (Czech)
- Fundamentals of Chemistry, Fourth Ed.