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Physiology/Related Articles

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A list of Citizendium articles, and planned articles, about Physiology.
See also changes related to Physiology, or pages that link to Physiology or to this page or whose text contains "Physiology".

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  • Acupuncture point [r]: According to the earliest oriental extant medical treatise, the Yellow Emperor's Classic, "holes" on the surface of the body enabling the life force, or qi (ch'i) to pass in an out of the body. [e]
  • Alcmaeon [r]: Please do not use this term in your topic list, because there is no single article for it. Please substitute a more precise term. See Alcmaeon (disambiguation) for a list of available, more precise, topics. Please add a new usage if needed.
  • Amphetamine [r]: A synthetic central nervous system stimulant which is used, today, to treat limited medical disorders. [e]
  • Anatomy [r]: The branch of morphology given to the study of the structure of members of the biological kingdom Animalia (animals). [e]
  • Anemia of chronic disease [r]: Anemia associated with chronic illness such as chronic infection, immune activation, or malignancy. [e]
  • Anemia [r]: A condition characterized by insufficient circulating and effective hemoglobin in blood to support normal physiology. [e]
  • Anthropology [r]: The holistic study of humankind; from the Greek words anthropos ("human") and logia ("study"). [e]
  • Aplastic anemia [r]: Disorder in which the bone marrow greatly decreases or stops production of blood cells. [e]
  • Apoptosis [r]: Programmed cell death by which cells in a multicellular organism undergo a controlled death. [e]
  • Arthritis [r]: A group of medical conditions where there is damage caused to the joints of the body. [e]
  • Bioengineering [r]: The application of electrical, mechanical, chemical, optical, nuclear and other engineering principles to understand, modify and control biological (plants and animals - including human) systems. [e]
  • Biology [r]: The science of life — of complex, self-organizing, information-processing systems living in the past, present or future. [e]
  • Blood gas analysis [r]: Test which measures the amounts of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood, as well as the acidity (pH) of the blood. [e]
  • Blood [r]: The body fluid that circulates in the vascular system (i.e., blood vessels). Whole blood includes plasma and blood cells. [e]
  • Botany [r]: The study of plants, algae and fungi (mycology). [e]
  • Brown Institution [r]: (1871-1944) former veterinary center of research and clinical practice in London. [e]
  • Calcium [r]: The chemical element with the symbol Ca and atomic number 20. [e]
  • Central nervous system [r]: The main information-processing organs of the nervous system, consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges. [e]
  • Cerebellum [r]: The small brain — a part of the hindbrain in vertebrates. [e]
  • Chiropractic education [r]: Prerequisites for entry into Chiropractic College, course requirements for matriculation and degrees available. [e]
  • Chiropractic [r]: A complementary, alternative health-care profession that aims to heal using manual therapies on the spine and extremities. [e]
  • Circulatory system [r]: Organ system that passes nutrients, gases, hormones, blood cells, nitrogen waste products, etc. to and from cells in the body. [e]
  • Cleisthenes [r]: Athenian statesman of the late 6th century BC and arguably the founder of Athenian Democracy as we now know of it. [e]
  • Cognitive science [r]: The scientific study either of mind or intelligence and includes parts of cognitive psychology, linguistics and computer science. [e]
  • Colonoscopy [r]: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the luminal surface of the colon. [e]
  • Council on Chiropractic Education [r]: The agency recognized by the U.S. Department of Education for accrediting programs and institutions which lead to the degree of 'Doctor of Chiropractic'. [e]
  • Critical care [r]: Health care provided to a critically ill patient during a medical emergency or crisis. [e]
  • Daniel David Palmer [r]: Add brief definition or description
  • Digital object identifier [r]: Unique label for a computer readable object that can be found on the internet, usually used in academic journals. [e]
  • Domestication [r]: The process of habituating wild animals or plants to live in association with humans, thereby providing us with food, livestock and pets. [e]
  • Drug discovery [r]: Process by which pharmaceuticals are discovered and/or designed. [e]
  • Embolism and thrombosis [r]: Pathological conditions which are caused by the formation of a blood clot (thrombus) in a blood vessel, or by blocking of a blood vessel with an embolus, undissolved materials in the blood stream. [e]
  • Emotion [r]: A psychophysiological process underlying the interpretation of situations or objects by an animal. [e]
  • Ergonomics [r]: Study of the design and arrangement of equipment so that people will interact with the equipment in healthy, comfortable, and efficient manner. [e]
  • Erythrocyte [r]: Blood cells that carry hemoglobin [e]
  • Erythropoietin [r]: A protein hormone produced by the kidneys in response to hypoxia; it is essential for normal development and maturation of red blood cells (RBC). [e]
  • Esophagogastroduodenoscopy [r]: Endoscopic procedure to view the upper gastrointestinal tract including the esophagus, stomach and duodenum. [e]
  • Etiology [r]: Study of causation, or origination, usually applied in medicine to the causes of disease. [e]
  • Evolutionary medicine [r]: The study of diseases from the point of view of human evolutionary biology [e]
  • Evolutionary psychology controversy [r]: The various criticisms of evolutionary psychology, as well as counterarguments to these criticisms. [e]
  • Evolutionary psychology [r]: The comparative study of the nervous system and its relation to behaviour across species. [e]
  • Fermentation (biochemistry) [r]: The process of deriving energy from the oxidation of organic compounds, such as carbohydrates, using an endogenous electron acceptor, which is usually an organic compound. [e]
  • Folic acid [r]: Nutrient required for a normal pregnancy. [e]
  • George Croom Robertson [r]: (1842–1892) Scottish philosopher; editor of Mind. [e]
  • Giant Panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) [r]: Endangered species of bear native to south-western China, with distinctive black and white coat and diet of mainly bamboo. [e]
  • Glomerular filtration rate [r]: Volume of water filtered out of the plasma through glomerular capillary walls into Bowman's capsules per unit of time. [e]
  • Heart failure [r]: Defective cardiac filling and/or impaired contraction and emptying, resulting in the heart's inability to pump a sufficient amount of blood to meet the needs of the body tissues or to be able to do so only with an elevated filling pressure. [e]
  • Heart rate [r]: The number of times the heart contracts per minute to pump blood around the body, usually expressed as beats per minute. [e]
  • Hemoglobin [r]: Iron-containing allosteric protein in erythrocytes of vertebrates, consisting of about 6 percent heme and 94 percent globin; also the clinical measurement of hemoglobin per volume of whole blood, varying with age and sex [e]
  • Hereditary spherocytosis [r]: Chronic congenital disorder of the erythrocytopoietic system characterized by a preponderance of fragile spherical erythrocytes, and haemolytic anaemia. [e]
  • Homeopathy [r]: System of alternative medicine involving administration of highly diluted substances with the intention to stimulate the body's natural healing processes, not considered proven by mainstream science. [e]
  • Homeostasis (biology) [r]: The coordinated physiological reactions which maintain most of the steady states in an organism. [e]
  • Human anatomy [r]: The study of shapes and structures of and within the human body. [e]
  • Human physiology [r]: Science of the workings of the human body and its component parts, at many levels and modes of scientific investigation and at many levels in the heirarchy of the human body’s complex and changing organization. [e]
  • Immunoglobulin [r]: Proteins produced by lymphocytes, which are primarily antibodies to attack material the body considers hostile, although some may act as cytokines, signaling to other cells [e]
  • Immunology [r]: The study of all aspects of the immune system in all animals. [e]
  • Insulin-secreting cell [r]: Insulin-producing cells of the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas, also called B cell. [e]
  • Insulin [r]: Hormone that regulates blood glucose levels. [e]
  • Iron deficiency anemia [r]: Anaemia resulting from a deficiency of iron, characterized by hypochromic microcytic erythrocytes and a normoblastic reaction of the bone marrow. [e]
  • Iron [r]: An important transition metal and chemical element with the symbol Fe (Latin: ferrum) and atomic number 26. [e]
  • Lead [r]: Chemical element number 82, a corrosion-resistant, dense, ductile heavy metal known to cause neurological problems. [e]
  • Lupus [r]: Please do not use this term in your topic list, because there is no single article for it. Please substitute a more precise term. See Lupus (disambiguation) for a list of available, more precise, topics. Please add a new usage if needed.
  • Medicine [r]: The study of health and disease of the human body. [e]
  • Metabolic equivalent [r]: Energy expended while resting, usually calculated as the energy used to burn 3 to 4 milliliters of oxygen per kilogram of body weight per minute. [e]
  • Methotrexate [r]: An inhibitor of tetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase, which prevents the formation of tetrahydrofolate, necessary for synthesis of thymidylate, an essential component of DNA; it has a wide range of medical applications. [e]
  • Myelodysplastic syndrome [r]: Haematological conditions united by ineffective production of blood cells and varying risks of transformation to acute myelogenous leukaemia. [e]
  • Natural stress relief meditation [r]: Add brief definition or description
  • Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine [r]: Award conferred once a year since 1901 by the Swedish Karolinska Institute, for physiology or medicine. [e]
  • Nobel Prize [r]: A prestigious annual prize awarded according to the will of Swedish chemist and entrepreneur Alfred Nobel in the categories Peace, Literature, Chemistry, Physiology or Medicine, and Physics. [e]
  • Phage ecology [r]: Study of the interaction of bacteriophages with their environments. [e]
  • Pharmacology [r]: Study of the changes produced in living animals by chemical substances, especially the actions of therapeutics, substances used to treat disease. [e]
  • Psychology [r]: The study of systemic properties of the brain and their relation to behaviour. [e]
  • Red blood cells [r]: Also called erythrocytes; a type of disc-shaped blood cell that contain hemoglobin, and the body's principal means of delivering oxygen to the body's cells via the blood, and the removal of carbon dioxide wastes that result from metabolism. [e]
  • Reticuloendothelial system [r]: Part of the immune system, consisting of the phagocytic cells located in reticular connective tissue, and primarily monocytes and macrophages. [e]
  • Rheostasis (biology) [r]: The biochemical and physiological processes that serve the adaptive needs of an organism facing internal or external environmental challenges through graduated quantitative regulation. [e]
  • Scurvy [r]: Multisystem disease caused by a deficiency of vitamin C, and an affliction of early sailors without access to fresh produce; it causes anemia and blood vessel fragility, often first manifesting bleeding gums, but can progress to internal bleeding affecting many systems, as well as weakness from anemia. [e]
  • Sensory physiology [r]: Study of how sensory stimulus is transduced by sensory receptors and processed by the nervous system. [e]
  • Sleep [r]: Naturally recurring state of relatively suspended sensory and motor activity in animals, characterized by total or partial unconsciousness. [e]
  • Snake venom [r]: Highly modified toxic saliva containing hydrolithic enzymes, polypeptide complexs, nucleases, and peptidases, that is produced by special glands of certain species of snakes. [e]
  • Stem cell [r]: Describes cells that have the potential to differentiate to new cell types; usually encompasses totipotent, pluripotent and multipotent cells. [e]
  • Stephen C. Cunnane [r]: Canadian physiologist and biophysist published widely on mammalian brain development, and the processes of ageing. [e]
  • Stress (physiology) [r]: Pathological process resulting from the reaction of the body to external forces and conditions that tend to disturb the organism's homeostasis. [e]
  • Survival of the Fattest [r]: A book by Stephen C. Cunnane that outlines why fat babies are important to human brain evolution. [e]
  • Thalassemia [r]: A group of hereditary hemolytic anemias in which there is decreased synthesis of one or more hemoglobin polypeptide chains (National Library of Medicine). [e]
  • Theoretical biology [r]: The study of biological systems by theoretical means. [e]
  • Vesalius [r]: (1514 - 1564) Flemish physician who revolutionized the field of anatomy by laying the groundwork for a new, observation-based methodology, using dissections of human cadavers. [e]
  • William Harvey [r]: (1579–1657) English physician who discovered the true nature of blood circulation and the function of the heart as a pump. [e]
  • Zoology [r]: The scientific study of animals. [e]