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- Biology : The science of life — of complex, self-organizing, information-processing systems living in the past, present or future.
- Nervous system : The control unit of bodily functions in animals.
- Central nervous system : The main information-processing organs of the nervous system, consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges.
- Brain : The core unit of a central nervous system.
- Action potential : A brief change in voltage that travels along a cell membrane.
- Anencephaly : a malformation of the nervous system caused by failure of the anterior neuropore to close
- Artificial intelligence : The field of science and engineering involved with the study, design and manufacture of systems that exhibit qualities such as adaptivity, complexity, goal pursuit, reactiveness to surroundings, and others that are commonly attributed to "intelligence."
- Astrocyte : A non-neural cell type in the brain and spinal cord of vertebrates.
- Ataxia : Impairment of the ability to perform smoothly coordinated voluntary movements.
- Autism : Developmental disability that results from a disorder of the human central nervous system.
- Brain injury : Physical damage to brain tissue or structure that occurs before, during, or after birth.
- Dendrite : A long, thin extension of the cell body of a neuron that is specialised to receive afferent input from other neurons.
- Foliation : Add brief definition or description
- Japanese encephalitis virus : Human viral infection epidemic in Japan, transmitted by the common house mosquito (Culex pipiens) and characterized by severe inflammation of the brain.
- Mammal : A warm-blooded animal with a backbone which also has hair, and produces milk to feed its young.
- Mesencephalon : Portion of the brain located superior to the pons and medulla and containing the motor nuclei of the ocular motor and trochlear nerves, and the major pathways and decussations of fibers from the cerebrum and cerebellum.
- Music perception : The study of the neural mechanisms involved in people perceiving rhythms, melodies, harmonies and other musical features.
- Polymicrogyria : A disorder in which the brain surface resembles that of a road paved with cobblestones.
- Red nucleus : Structure in the rostral midbrain involved in motor coordination, which comprises a caudal magnocellular and a rostral parvocellular part.
- Schizophrenia : A mental disorder characterized by impaired perception of the individual's environment.
- Stereology : The science of estimating or measuring geometrical quantities. First order quantities include volume, surface area, length, and numbers of objects. Second order quantities include size distribution, and anisotropy.
- Tremor : Cyclical movement of a body part that can represent either a physiologic process or a manifestation of disease.