- Anthropology : The holistic study of humankind; from the Greek words anthropos ("human") and logia ("study").
- Biology : The science of life — of complex, self-organizing, information-processing systems living in the past, present or future.
- Hominid : A reduction of the term Hominidae that refers to all of the fossil and living bipedal apes including the Australopithecines, fossil members of the genus Homo and living humans.
- Homo (genus) : Add brief definition or description
- Africa : Continent stretching over the equator, hosting deserts, tropical jungles and savannah as well as over fifty nations; population about 900,000,000.
- Ape : Tail-less primates in Africa and Eurasia, e.g. humans, orang-utans and chimpanzees.
- Brain : The core unit of a central nervous system.
- Chimpanzee : An ape home to western and central Africa.
- Consciousness : Sense of awareness of self and of the environment.
- Earth : The third planet from the Sun in our solar system; the only place in the universe known by humanity to harbor life.
- Human anatomy : The study of shapes and structures of and within the human body.
- Human and ape behavior : Hypothesising behavioural characteristics of early hominids by observing the behaviour of members of the family Pongidae.
- Human biology : Interdisciplinary academic field of biology, biological anthropology, nutrition and medicine which focuses on humans.
- Human evolution : The study of the physical and behavioral genetic adaptations of the species belonging to the subfamily hominidae.
- Mammal : A warm-blooded animal with a backbone which also has hair, and produces milk to feed its young.
- Primate : A member of the biological order Primates, which includes prosimians (galagos, lorises, lemurs and tarsiers), monkeys, apes, and humans.
- Taxon : Any group or rank categorised in the classification of organisms, e.g., class, order, family.
- (Thomas) Robert Malthus : British economist (1766-1834) who warned about the dangers of population growth.