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A timeline (or several) relating to Edinburgh.

This represents a timeline of the history of Edinburgh, up to the present day.


Late 1st century: Roman brooch and fine pottery from this period have been found
c638: The Gododdin are defeated and the site is captured by Edwin of Northumbria
731: Edinburgh is possibly the town of Guidi mentioned by Bede
854: The first St Giles kirk is founded
960: Edinburgh temporarily falls into Scottish hands


1020: Malcolm II permanently annexes Edinburgh to Scotland
1074: Refortification of the castle and city begins under Malcolm III
1093: Queen Margaret dies at fort on "hill of Agned", regarded as a royal castle - St Margaret's chapel is built soon after.


1114: Infant Scottish heir Malcolm is murdered by a priest
1124 or 1127: First documentary evidence of a "church of the community or burgh of Edin"
c1125: David I founds burgh
1128: David I founds Holyrood Abbey
1162: Edinburgh is the caput of the Lothian sheriffdom


1230: Alexander II founds large Dominican friary; a hospital is also open
1274: Lothian is an archdeaconry of St Andrews
1296: Edinburgh is again held by the English, and strongly fortified


1314: Edinburgh castle captured by Thomas Randolph, 1st Earl of Moray
1326-1331: Edinburgh's contribution to Scottish burgh taxes is 15%, half that of Aberdeen
1328: A treaty is signed guaranteeing Scottish independence
1329: Robert the Bruce makes the town a burgh, and establishes a port at Leith
1330: Wall between High Street and Cowgate is first mentioned; the castle is demolished by David II
1334: Scotland loses major port of Berwick to the English, Edinburgh's importance increases
1341: Scots regain castle from English
1360: Edinburgh has almost 4,000 houses, and is regarded as the nation's capital; the castle is the usual royal residence, being strengthened in stone
1364: David II grants ground for building of a new tron (weigh beam)
1367: David II begins work on major fortifications at the castle
1371: David II dies unexpectedly at the castle
1384: Duke of Lancaster extorts ransom following end of truce
1386: Robert II grants ground for building a tolbooth
1387: Five new chapels are added to St Giles' after English damage in 1385; St Giles' is the High Kirk


1400: Henry IV attempts to storm castle when Robert III refuses homage
1404: Old Corstorphine Parish Church built by Sir Adam Forrester
1437: Edinburgh becomes the capital of Scotland
1440: The Earl of Douglas and his brother are murdered at the castle by William Crichton
1440s: Edinburgh has 47% of Scottish wool trade
c1449: Cordiners (shoemakers) is incorporated
1450-1475: There is a defensive wall around the city (The King's Wall)
1455-1458: Greyfriars (Franciscan) friary is founded
1457: The 508mm siege gun "Mons Meg" is received at castle; there are goldsmiths in the city
1458: Edinburgh has one of three supreme courts in the country
Pre-1460: Trinity is a collegiate church
1467-1469: St Giles' gains collegiate status, a provost and fourteen prebendaries are established
1474-1475: Skinner and weaver crafts become guilds incorporated by the town council
1477: All fifteen of Edinburgh's markets are arranged along the length of the High Street
1479: A hospital is set up in Leith Wynd
1482: The Earls of Atholl and Buchan agree to free James III
1483: The Hammermen (smiths) are incorporated
1485: There is a notary in the Canongate; stone tenements appear in the city
1490: The Franciscan friary closes


1500: Edinburgh pays 60% of Scotland's customs revenue
1503: James IV marries Margaret Tudor
1505: Royal College of Surgeons founded
1507: James IV grants a patent for the first printing press in Scotland to Walter Chapman and Andrew Myllar
1513: Defeat by the English at the Battle of Flodden Field on 9 September = end of reign of James IV. On 10 September James V becomes King of Scotland. Building of a new southern wall begins in Edinburgh.
1520: Archibald Douglas, [Earl of Angus, seizes control of the city; Edinburgh is the "seat of courts of justice"
1523: City has fourteen craft guilds
1528: James V enters city with an army, to assert his right to rule; Holyrood Palace is built for him
1530: There are 288 brewers known as 'alewives' in the city, one for every forty people
1532: Holyrood Abbey is transformed into a royal palace; the Court of Session is built
1534: Norman Gourlay and David Stratton are burnt as heretics
1535-1556: Edinburgh contributes over 40% of Scotland's burgh taxation
1537: Jane Douglas, Lady of Glamis is burned at the stake for witchcraft and for conspiring to poison King James V.
1542: Cardinal Beaton is chosen as chief ruler of the city council. On 14 Deceber, the reign of James V of Scotland comes to an end and that of Mary Queen of Scots begins on the 15th
1544: Henry VIII begins his period of "rough wooing" aimed at imposing the marriage of his son to Mary Queen of Scots. Armies invade from the south and from the sea near Edinburgh. TheEarl of Hertford burns the city; Holyrood Palace and abbey burn
1547: 10 September: A large English army with naval support beats the Scots at the Battle of Pinkie, to the east of Edinburgh. The English occupy Edinburgh, (though not its castle).
1548: Another English army invades, and fortify at Haddington, a few miles south of Edinburgh. In June, a French army lands at Leith to support the Scots after an agreement that Mary Queen of Scots, (who is still only five years old), would marry Francois, the eldest son of King Henri II of France. The French besiege the English at Haddington. On 29 July, a French fleet rescues Mary Queen of Scots from Dumbarton and takes her to France.
1555: John Knox returns from exile
1558: Riots break out over French prosecution of Protestants; the Flodden Wall is complete; Edinburgh's population is now about 12,000; there are 367 merchants, and 400 craftsmen
1559: John Knox is appointed minister of St Giles' church
1560: English and French troops to withdraw under Treaty of Edinburgh; Reformation: 40 altars, aisles, and pillars are dedicated to different saints in St Giles'
1565: Mary Queen of Scots marries Lord Darnley, Henry Stuart
1566: Mary is held captive in Holyrood Palace; David Rizzio is stabbed
1567: Darnley is assassinated at Kirk o' Field House; James Hepburn is cleared of the murder
1569: The city is hit by an outbreak of the plague
1572 John Knox' Protestant leader dies in Edinburgh on 24 November
1573: A pro-Mary garrison is ousted from the castle by the regent, the Earl of Moray
1574: The castle's Half-Moon Battery is built; there are seven mills in Edinburgh
Late 1570s: Edinburgh now has 4 ministers, previously it had only one
1579: James VI makes his state entry
1580s: There are some 400 merchants in Edinburgh
1581: James Douglas is executed for complicity in the murder of Lord Darnley
1582: The University of Edinburgh is founded and given a royal charter by King James VI - it is the fourth university in Scotland
1583: There are an estimated 500 merchants and 500 craftsmen in the city, of which 250 are tailors
1586: Skinners and goldsmiths form their own companies (previously part of the Company of Hammermen)
1591: Francis Hepburn, Earl of Bothwell escapes from imprisonment in castle
1592: Earl of Moray murdered by catholic Earl of Huntly; the presbytery takes the first Edinburgh census: there are c8,000 adults, split evenly between north and south of the High Street
1593: Earl of Bothwell take over at Holyrood Palace
1594: Earl of Bothwell fails to seize city
1596: Clergy demand arms to defend king and church against "papists"


1600: There are twelve roads out of Edinburgh
1602: Greyfriars Kirk is begun
1603: The headquarters of the Scottish Post Office is in Edinburgh - there is another post office in the Canongate; William Mayne makes golf clubs for James VI;
1604: The Laird of MacGregor and fourteen others are hanged for the Colquhoun massacre
1610: First factories spring up in Dalry
1610-1621: Andrew Hart publishes Napier's book of logs
1613: Lord Maxwell is hanged for the murder of the Laird of Johnstone
1614: John Napier discovers logarithms
1615: The Earl of Orkney is executed after a rebellion to overthrow James VI
1617: Gladstone's Land, 6-storey tenement in Lawnmarket, expanded (built originally in 1550s);
1618: Some seven-storey buildings have been built in the city; its population is c25,000, with about 475 merchants
1619: The Privy Council orders the city to clean up its streets; a hospital built in 1479 becomes a workhouse
1621: Edinburgh and Leith pay 44% of Scottish non-wine customs duty, and 66% of wine duty
1624: Edinburgh is hit by a plague epidemic
c1625: Tailor's Hall is built in the Cowgate
1628-1636: The Teflfer Wall is built, from the Grassmarket to just beyond Greyfriars
1628-1693: George Heriot's Hospital, now a private school was erected to the South of Edinburgh Castle. The hospital was paid for by a gift of £30,000 from George Heriot, jeweller to King James VI.
1632: Work begins on Parliament House to house the Parliament of Scotland
1633: Charles I visits Edinburgh for his coronation at St Giles' Cathedral, but soon after precipitates a crisis by introducing episcopacy to the Church of Scotland, in the process making Edinburgh a bishopric for the first time.
1636: The construction of the Tron Church is begun; the city's population is c.30,000
1637: Introduction of new Prayer Book causes riots; a supplication is delivered to remove bishops from the privy council
1639: Decisions of Glasgow assembly are ratified
1640: Parliament House is completed
1641: Sir Robert Sibbald, later the Geographer Royal, is born
1642 or 1645: Outbreak of bubonic plague, the last of several outbreaks during the 16th and 17th centuries. Mary King's Close is abandoned
1647: A well-known map of the city is drawn by Rothiemay; the Tron Kirk is completed
1649: Covenanters execute royalist Marquis of Huntly; the town Corporation buys the area around West Port
1650: James Graham, 1st Marquess of Montrose, is hanged; the castle surrenders to Oliver Cromwell's men; James Colquhoun builds early fire engines: one for Edinburgh, one for Glasgow
1650s: A new church is built in the Canongate
1652: A 'journey coach' to London is introduced - the journey takes a fortnight
1653: English forces break up the General Assembly
1655: A council of state is set up; ministers yield to the English
1660: A committee of estates resumes government of Scotland
1661: Thomas Sydserf produces the first Scottish newspaper; Archibald Campbell, Earl of Argyll, is executed
1663: The former Covenanter Archibald Johnston is executed
1667: The privy council empowers magnates to police the highlands
1670: Water is piped into the city from Comiston Springs. A Botanic Garden is founded at St Anne's Yards next to Holyrood Palace as a 'Physic Garden' for cultivating medicinal plants, by Robert Sibbald (later the first Professor of Medicine at Edinburgh University) and Dr Andrew Balfour. It is the second oldest botanic garden in Britain after Oxford's (which was founded in 1620).
1670s: Butchering of animals moves from the Grassmarket to Dalkeith
1671: John Law is born - he set up the national bank of France.
1675: Robert Sibbald co-founds physic garden planted at Holyrood
1677: The first coffee house opens in the city
1678: The first stagecoaches run to Glasgow
1679: Covenanters defeated at Bothwell Bridge, more than 1,000 survivors are imprisoned in Greyfriars.
1681: Robert Sibbald founds Royal College of Physicians, whose patron is the Duke of York; Viscount Stair publishes his Institutions of the Laws of Scotland
1682: Sir George Mackenzie founds Advocates' Library - forerunner to the National Library of Scotland
1688: Royal government collapses as Chancellor Perth flees
1691: Canongate Church built and open for burial.
1690s: Lawyers have more wealth than all merchants and craftsmen in the burgh combined; over 20% of the population is in manufacturing
1694: There are more professionals than merchants in Edinburgh; 200 legals (advocates to lawyers), 24 surgeons, and 33 physicians; other occupations include aleseller, executioner, royal trumpeter, and keeper of the signet; the ratio of sexes in the city is 70 males:100 females - there are over 5000 domestic servants in Edinburgh
1696: The Scottish Privy Council orders a search for books deemed "atheistical, erroneous or profane or vicious" in the stock of Edinburgh booksellers.
1697: Thomas Aikenhead, a student at Edinburgh University is hanged for blasphemy


1700: A severe fire leads to new buildings, built in stone; the estimated population is 60,000
1702: Advocates' Library moved from Faculty of Advocates to Parliament House
1706: Framework knitters from Haddington are working in Edinburgh
1707: Act of Union- The Union of the Scottish and English Parliaments
1711: David Hume, the philosopher who "ruined Philosophy and Faith" is born
1713: The main radial roads into Edinburgh are turnpiked
1715: Jacobites fail to take castle
1718: Edinburgh Evening Courant newspaper is launched; damasks are woven at Drumsheugh
1720: 21 pirates, captured with their ship The Eagle are thrown into the dungeons of Edinburgh Castle. Most will be hanged on Leith Sands.
1720s: The English spy Daniel Defoe praises the Royal Mile, decries Tolbooth or prison, notes sales of woollens, linens, drapery and mercery
1722: The Signet Library is founded
1725:The poet Allan Ramsay publishes The Gentle Shepherd
1726: Allan Ramsay established the first circulating library; a medical school at the city's college is founded; James Hutton, the 'father of geology', is born
1729: The city's first infirmary is opened
1733: Alexander Monro secunduus, discoverer of lymphatic and nervous systems, is born
1735: Golf is played on Bruntsfield links; also the traditional date the Royal Burgess Golfing Society is founded
1736: The Royal Infirmary is incorporated; The Porteous riots break out when the city guard, led by John Porteous fires on a mob during another execution. Porteous is imprisoned, but is seized from prison by armed men who lynch him in the Grassmarket.
1737: The Lord Provost is ousted following the riots
1738: Edinburgh is described as the "world's leading medical centre"; John Watson's College is founded
1739: The Scots Magazine is first published in the city
1740: There are four printing firms in Edinburgh; the biographer James Boswell is born
1741: 'Deacon' Brodie is born
1744: The first premises at Fountainbridge are built, with more than five looms
The Honorary Society of Edinburgh Golfers (the world's first golf club) is founded
1745: Charles Edward Stuart ("Bonny Prince Charlie")enters the city
1746: The British Linen Company is formed
1747: A theatre is established at Playhouse Close in the Canongate
1748: Adam Smith begins his public lectures in Edinburgh
1749: A stagecoach service opens between Edinburgh and Glasgow
1750: A ropery is established in the city
1753: Stagecoach services are introduced to London (taking two weeks)
1754: The Select Society is founded
1756: John Home's play Douglas is performed at the Canongate Theatre, and is greeted with enthusiasm: one of the audience is moved to shout "Whaur's yer Wully Shakespere noo!"
1757-1770: Linen weaving works in Canongate
1758: Stagecoach services are introduced to Newcastle (taking one week)
1759: The Nor' Loch is drained; the site is now Princes Street Gardens.
1760: First school for deaf children opens
1760s: Woollen cloth is beetled in a lapping house in Edinburgh
1761: The Bruntsfield Golfing Society is formed
1763: Construction of the North Bridge, designed by Robert Adam, begins; a four-horse coach runs to Glasgow three times a week. Buccleuch Cemetery opened
1765: The Glasgow coach now runs daily
1766: The competition to design the New Town is won by James Craig. Joseph Black succeeds William Cullen as Professor of Chemistry at the University.
1767: Construction of the New Town begins; this will lead to the "Great Flitting" as the middle classes move from the Old Town. The Theatre Royal opens on 9 December 1767, in Shakespere Square, at the east end of Princes Street. The occasion is commemorated in verse by James Boswell. The foundation stone was laid on 16 March 1768.
1770: The British Linen Company switches to banking; the Heriot Brewery starts
1770s: There are 27 competing printing firms in the city
1771: Sir Walter Scott is born
1772: Construction of the North Bridge is completed
1773 or 1777: Penny-post service begins
1775: A directory of brothels and prostitutes is published; Edinburgh has an estimated population of 57,000
1776:Adam Smith's masterpiece The Wealth of Nations is published
1777: There are 8 legal and 400 illegal distilleries in the city
1781: The Mound road is opened
1782: The voting system is criticised by Thomas McGrugar in Letters of Zeno
1784: James (Balloon) Tytler becomes the first Briton to ascend in a hot air balloon - the ‘Grand Edinburgh Fire Balloon’.
1785-1786: Stone bridge at Stockbridge
1786-1788: The South Bridge is built
1788: William "Deacon" Brodie, leader of a gang of robbers is hanged. He is buried at Buccleuch Cemetery; the first stone of Edinburgh University's Old College is laid.
1792: The Friends of the People Society meets for the first time; Charlotte Square in the New Town is designed by Robert Adam
1793: Thomas Muir, a radical reformer and leader of the Friends of the People Society is arrested and charged with sedition.
1794: Robert Watt, a former spy, is sentenced to death for the "Pike Plot". [1] Sir Walter Scott is involved in a riot at the Theatre Royal when some of the audience refuse to stand for the National Anthem.
1799: City has access to 3 million litres of water a day


1800: Charlotte Square is completed; Stein's large Canongate brewery is built
c1800: National Museum of Antiquities is established
1802: The Edinburgh Review is published, offering literary criticism
1802-1806: The Bank of Scotland head office is built
1803: Dorothy Wordsworth stays in the "White Hart" inn in the Grassmarket
1814: A protest meeting against West Indian slavery is held; two coaches a day run to Stirling
1816-1819: Regent Bridge is built, The Nelson monoment is built on Calton Hill.
1817: Coal gas supplies are available in the city; coal fires begin to lose popularity; the old tolbooth in Waterloo Place is demolished.
1818: The Union Canal is begun; Calton Hill observatory is founded by the Edinburgh Astronomical Association
1819: Five coaches a day run between Edinburgh and Glasgow. Buccleuch Cemetery is declared full.
1820: The population is now 138,000. There are protests at George IV's treatment of Queen Caroline. East Preston Street Cemetery is opened. The Edinburgh Freethinkers' Zetetic Society is formed.
1822: King George IV visits Edinburgh and wears the kilt; the first Highland and Agricultural Show takes place. The last public whipping in Edinburgh takes place on 31st July.
1823: The Bannatyne Club is founded by Sir Walter Scott to publish rare works of Scottish interest in history, poetry, or literature. It published 116 volumes before being dissolved in 1861.
1824: A large fire destroys many buildings
1825: Eight Royal Mail coaches and over fifty stage coaches leave Edinburgh each day
1826: The Royal Scottish Academy is founded
1828: William Burke is tried for murder, to supply bodies for anatomical dissection
1829: William Burke is hanged and his body given for anatomical dissection. The National monument is erected.
1831: The Edinburgh and Dalkeith Railway opens (known as The Innocent Railway), as railways start to come to the city
1832: A cholera outbreak occurs in the city; The Scotsman newspaper incorporates the Caledonian Mercury
1833: The city goes bankrupt; partly due to the development of Leith docks
1835: Edinburgh's New Town is completed, and the Old Town becomes a slum
1836: The Royal Institution opens, designed by William Playfair
1840: Barnard's Canongate brewery is expanded
1841-1851: Donaldson's hospital for the deaf is built
1842: Edinburgh-Glasgow railway line is open to the public
1843: Disruption of the Church of Scotland. Warriston Cemetery is opened by the Edinburgh Cemetery Company.
1844-1846: The Scott Monument is built
1846: The North British Railway company is established, and railways link Edinburgh and London
1847: Alexander Graham Bell is born in the city; half of Edinburgh's population attend the funeral of Thomas Chalmers
1850: The foundation stone of the Scottish National Gallery is laid; the Holyrood brewery is enlarged for the third time. Robert Louis Stevenson is born in Edinburgh
1851: The British Linen Bank head office opens on St Andrews Square, in the New Town
1853: The Edinburgh Trades Council is established
1856: The burgh of Canongate becomes part of Edinburgh
1859: The National Gallery opens
1860: Bank of Scotland has 43 branches
1861: Industrial museum built beside university (now the Royal Museum)
1864:On 21st June, George Bryce ("The Ratho murderer") was hanged for the murder of Jane Seaton: the last public execution in Edinburgh.
1864-1870: Bank of Scotland head office re-designed and extended
1865: Report on city’s sanitation paints picture of degradation
1867: Scottish Women’s Suffrage Society holds meetings for first time
1869: Sophia Jex-Blake becomes the first female medical student
1870: Fettes College opens
1870-1879: New buildings for the Royal Infirmary
1872: Watt Institution and School of Arts begins to be built
Greyfriars Bobby dies, aged 16.
1875: Royal Theatre destroyed by fire; Institute of Bankers founded
1881: Dean Distillery opens, converted from Dean Mills
1882: City brought to standstill by severe winter weather
1883: Chair of Celtic established at the university
1885: Watt Institution and School of Arts merges with George Heriot’s to become Heriot-Watt College
1889: City hit by earthquake; Charles Parnell granted freedom of the city
1890: Free public library opens to public
1892: Drybroughs’ brewery moves to Craigmillar; McVitie's devise ‘digestive biscuits’. The Empire Palace Theatre, designed by Frank Matcham opens, accommodating 3000 theatregoers in lavishly ornate surroundings.
1896-1900: Abbey brewery built by Robert Younger


1901: Edinburgh University appoints its first Professor of Scottish history
1902: Waverley Station is complete; the North British Hotel opens (later to become the 'Balmoral Hotel')
1903: The Floral Clock is installed in Princes Street Gardens. Hands were added in 1904, and the cuckoo in 1905.
1905: Moray House in Canongate becomes a teacher training centre
1905-1906: The "King’s Theatre" is built at Tollcross
1907: Work begins on constructing the Edinburgh College of Art
1910: First electric trams run
1911: The Palladium Cinema opens. A fire breaks out during a show at the Empire Palace Theatre, killing 11. Amongst the dead is "The Great Lafayette" - the highest paid illusionist of his time. Lafayette was performing his signature illusion, 'the Lion's Bride', when an electrical fault caused a fire. Lafayette died trying to rescue Arizona, his black stallion. A body, believed to be Lafayette's was sent for cremation, but two days later, workers found another body - the body that had been sent for cremation was that of the illusionist's body double. Lafayette is buried at Piershill Cemetery, with his terrier Beauty who had died four days earlier.
1911-1914: The Usher Hall is built, the concert hall is gifted to the city by a whisky distiller
1912: The "Mansion House" and surrounding estate is purchased for £17,000 by The Royal Zoological Society of Scotland, and Edinburgh Zoo opens here on 22 July 1913.
1914: The Royal Scots (Lothian Regiment) is formed at Edinburgh in September 1914 by the Lord Provost and City
1915: Edinburgh Airport begins life as Turnhouse Aerodrome for the Royal Flying Corps; it houses the 603 (City of Edinburgh) Squadron, consisting of DH 9As, Westland Wapitis, Hawker Harts, and Hawker Hind light bombers
1916: The Bank of Scotland has its first female employee
1916-1918: Tanks are built by Brown Brothers in the city
1921: The Garrick Theatre burns down
1925: The National Library of Scotland is formed from the former Advocates’ Library
1928: The Flying Scotsman provides a fast rail link to London; the city’s first traffic lights are at Broughton Street. The Empire Palace Theatre reopens as the Empire Theatre.
1932: George Watson’s College moves to Morningside
1946: A telephone upgrade takes place, allowing all-city dialling
1946-1947: Electric trams in the city carry 16 million passengers a month
1947: The Edinburgh International Festival is launched, the Festival programme includes Margot Fonteyn in 'Sleeping Beauty' at the Empire Theatre; restoration of Canongate
1949: The Abercrombie Plan introduces ring roads and a bypass
1951: Two central (manual) phone exchanges handle over 9,500 lines
1952: The Bank of Scotland takes over the Union Bank of Scotland, giving 453 combined branches
1956: The Edinburgh tram system closes
1958: Queen Elizabeth II receives the last debutantes
1959: Old Town population declines to 2,000
1960: Infirmary Street baths are damaged by fire. The first kidney transplant in UK is performed at the Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh
1963: The Evening Despatch and Edinburgh Evening News merge; Empire Theatre becomes a bingo hall
1966: Heriot-Watt gains university status
1968: The Palladium Theatre fails, and becomes a disco
1968-1969: The Royal Bank of Scotland takes over National Commercial Bank of Scotland
1969: The Bank of Scotland absorbs the British Linen Bank; Tollcross Bus Depot closes
1970: The Commonwealth Games are held in the city; The Scots win 6 gold medals, including Lachie Stewart, who defeated Ron Clarke in the 10,000m, and Ian Stewart who took the 5,000m title. The St James’ Centre, including a new St Andrews House, is completed
1971: Tom Farmer starts Kwik-Fit
1972: A youth hostel opens at Eglington Crescent; Bell’s Mills are destroyed by an explosion
1974: David Murray, later connected with Glasgow Rangers, starts Murray International Metals
1976: A new Fountain Brewery is built by Scottish & Newcastle
1985: The population of the city is 440,000
1989: The National Gallery of Scotland is renovated
1990: Edinburgh Castle is first, and Holyrood Palace eighth, in ranking of paid Scottish tourist attractions
1994: The old Empire Theatre, restored to its 1928 glory, re-opens as The Edinburgh Festival Theatre, with a capacity of 1915 seats
1996: Infirmary St baths close
19997: Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone is published, it was written by JK Rowling in part in cafes in the Old Town
1998: The Museum of Scotland is built
1999: The Scottish Parliament is opened by the Queen


2001: Norway promotes a king penguin at Edinburgh Zoo to the rank of honourable regimental sergeant major. The bird is the first to hold the rank in the Norwegian Army
2002: Harvey Nicholls opens a store in St Andrews Square
2004: The Scottish Parliament Building opens in Holyrood