- Earth science : The study of the components and processes of the planet Earth.
- Geology : The scientific study of the structure and composition of the earth's crust and its changes over time.
- Geophysics : The study of the Earth by quantitative physical methods, namely seismic, magnetic, electrical, electromagnetic, thermal and radioactivity methods.
- Plate tectonics : Theory that explains geological phenomena such as seismicity, volcanism, continental drift, and mountain building in terms of the formation, destruction, movement, and interaction of the earth's lithospheric plates.
- Mountain range : Chain of mountains bordered by highlands or separated from other mountains by passes or valleys.
- Europe : Sixth largest continent; area 10,000,000 km2; pop. 720,000,000
- European plate : Add brief definition or description
- Mont Blanc : Add brief definition or description
- Eiger : Add brief definition or description
- Zugspitze : Highest mountain in Germany, in the Wetterstein Range of the Northern Limestone Alps, between Austria and Germany.
- Écrins National Park : Natural park in the southern Alps (Provence, France).
- Mercantour National Park : Natural park in the far southern Alps (Provence, France).
- Mondovì : Add brief definition or description
- Schachen : A hunting lodge designed and built for King Ludwig II of Bavaria.
- Neuschwanstein : 19th-century Bavarian palace on a hill near Hohenschwangau and Füssen in southwest Bavaria, Germany, commissioned by Ludwig II of Bavaria as a retreat and as an homage to Richard Wagner.
- Alpine vegetation : Add brief definition or description
- Apennine peninsula : A boot-shaped peninsula in southern Europe extending into the Mediterranean Sea.
- Austria : Federal republic in central Europe (population c. 8.2 million; capital Vienna), bordered to the north by Germany and the Czech Republic; to the south by Italy and Slovenia; to the west by Switzerland and Liechtenstein; and to the east by Hungary and Slovakia.
- County of Nice : A historical region of France, located in the south-eastern part, around the city of Nice.
- De analogia : Two books of a grammatical work on the Latin language written by Julius Caesar and dedicated to Cicero.
- France : Western European republic (population c. 64.1 million; capital Paris) extending across Europe from the English Channel in the north-west to the Mediterranean in the south-east; bounded by Belgium, Luxembourg, Germany, Switzerland, Italy, Monaco, Andorra and Spain; founding member of the European Union. Colonial power in Southeast Asia until 1954.
- Germany : Federal republic in central Europe (population c. 82.4 million; capital Berlin), with the North Sea, Denmark and the Baltic Sea to the north; Poland and the Czech Republic to the east; Switzerland and Austria to the south; and France, Luxembourg, Belgium and the Netherlands to the west; founding member of the European Union.
- Gertrude Bell : (1868-1926) British expert on the Middle East, involved in strategic intelligence for the Arab Revolt (First World War) and had a major influence on the formation of modern Iraq.
- Glacier : Bodies of flowing ice that form when more snow accumulates each year than melts.
- Italy : Southern European republic (population c. 58.1 million; capital Rome) that has northern borders with France, Switzerland, Austria and Slovenia, and coastlines on the Tyrrhenian, Mediterranean, Ionian and Adriatic seas; founding member of the European Union.
- Liechtenstein : A doubly landlocked alpine microstate in Western Europe, bordered by Switzerland to the west and south and by Austria to the east.
- Mountain : An elevated area of a planet or moon, rapidly rising to high altitude.
- Occitania : Area of southwestern Europe were the Occitan language is spoken.
- Permafrost : Soil at or below the freezing point of water (0 °C or 32 °F) for two or more years.
- Provence : Region of southwestern Europe, politically in France and culturally in Occitania, stretching from the Rhone to the Alps along the Mediterranean Sea.
- Queyras Natural Regional Park : Natural park in the southern Alps (Provence, France).
- Rhine : A large river (ca 1,320 km) that drains portions of northern Europe, flowing from south-eastern Switzerland through Germany and the Netherlands, into the North Sea.
- Slovenia : Former Yugoslav republic (population c. 2 million; capital Ljubljana) at the north-eastern end of the Adriatic Sea, and bordering Italy and Austria to the alpine west and north, Hungary to the north-east, and Croatia along a long frontier to the east and south.
- Snow line : Add brief definition or description
- Stone : Rock or a piece of rock shaped, cut, or finished for a particular purpose, especially used in construction, paving, monuments, and jewellery.
- Switzerland : A country in western Europe known for its banking industry and for being a neutral country since early 19th century.
- Valley glacier : A stream of ice that originates in the snowfields of a high mountain range and flows down a preexisting stream valley.
- Watershed : Add brief definition or description