From Citizendium, the Citizens' Compendium
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- Adrenergic uptake inhibitor : Drug which acts as a reuptake inhibitor for the neurotransmitters norepinephrine and epinephrine by blocking the action of the norepinephrine transporter.
- Angiotensin II receptor antagonist : Agents that antagonize angiotensin II type 1 receptor. Included are angiotensin II analogs such as saralasin and biphenylimidazoles such as losartan. Some are used as antihypertensive agents.
- Antihypertensive : is a drug or pharmacological agent used to treat hypertension.
- Bioavailability : An objective measurement of the availability, of target tissues, of the active ingredient of a drug or nutrient administered to a living organism
- Bioequivalence : Two different drugs which have the same potency and bioavailability, assuming equal doses.
- Chemistry : The science of matter, or of the electrical or electrostatical interactions of matter.
- Chiropractic : A complementary, alternative health-care profession that aims to heal using manual therapies on the spine and extremities.
- Cholinergic antagonist : The medications "that bind to but do not activate cholinergic receptors, thereby blocking the actions of acetylcholine or cholinergic agonists."
- Clonidine : An "alpha-2 adrenergic agonist that crosses the blood-brain barrier.
- Colchicine : Poisonous, pale-yellow alkaloid obtained from the seed capsules, corms, and bulbs of the meadow saffron, used in plant breeding to induce chromosome doubling and in medicine to treat gout.
- Diclofenac : A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent (NSAID) with antipyretic and analgesic actions.
- Drug discovery : Process by which pharmaceuticals are discovered and/or designed.
- Drug interaction : A modification of the effect of a drug when administered with another drug.
- Drug-induced liver injury : Injury to the liver that is associated with impaired liver function caused by exposure to a drug; common causes include antibiotics, anticonvulsants, and psychotropic drugs.
- Flexner Report : Influential report on medical school curricula in the USA (1910), which transformed it to one based on scientific preparation and formal education.
- Food and Drug Administration : The agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services responsible for regulating food, dietary supplements, drugs, biological medical products, blood products, medical devices, radiation-emitting devices, veterinary products, and cosmetics.
- Generic drug : Drugs whose drug name is not protected by a trademark. They may be manufactured by several companies.
- Heart rate : The number of times the heart contracts per minute to pump blood around the body, usually expressed as beats per minute.
- Homeopathy : System of alternative medicine involving administration of highly diluted substances with the intention to stimulate the body's natural healing processes, not considered proven by mainstream science.
- Hormone : A chemical director of biological activity that travels through some portion of the body as a messenger.
- Indomethacin : Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic agent, used in arthritic disorders and degenerative joint disease, and to treat soft-tissue sports injuries.
- Materia Medica : Collected study of therapeutic properties of any substance used in medicine, their origins, preparation, uses, and effects.
- Medication : A licensed drug taken to cure or reduce symptoms of an illness or medical condition.
- Medicine : The study of health and disease of the human body.
- Methadone : Synthetic, relatively long-acting oral opioid analgesic, with actions similar to those of morphine and heroin.
- Naproxen : Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug commonly used for the reduction of moderate to severe pain, fever, inflammation and stiffness.
- Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine : Award conferred once a year by the Swedish Karolinska Institute, for physiology or medicine, since 1901.
- Paracelsus : (1493-1541) An early Renaissance alchemist, philosopher and physician credited with founding the modern fields of pharmacology and toxicology.
- Pharmacy : A area of heath science that uses principles of chemistry and biology to study the interaction of drugs with biological systems and optimize drug therapy.
- Phenothiazine : Organic compound that occurs in various antipsychotic and antihistaminic drugs, used in the treatment of psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia.
- Physiology : The study of the mechanical, physical, and biochemical functions of tissues and how they interact.
- Psychoneuroimmunology : Study of the interactions between behavior, the brain, and the immune system.
- Psychotherapy : An intervention or insight technique that relies on communication between a therapist and a client(s) to address specific forms of diagnosable mental illness, or everyday problems
- Rheumatoid arthritis : A chronic, inflammatory autoimmune disorder that causes the immune system to attack the joints.
- Teicoplanin : Glycopeptide antibiotic, similar to vancomycin, used in the treatment of serious Gram-positive infections.
- Tiotropium : A long-acting, 24 hour, anticholinergic bronchodilator used in the management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
- Tricyclic antidepressant : Adrenergic uptake inhibitors used in the treatment of depression and other diseases; suppress postsynaptic catechol-O-methyl transferase, causing increases in synaptic norepinephrine and serotonin