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- Action potential : A brief change in voltage that travels along a cell membrane.
- Brain : The core unit of a central nervous system.
- Cerebral cortex : External tissue layer within the vertebrate brain, ensheathed by the pia mater; home to the nerve cell bodies; important in learning and dementia.
- Demyelinating disease : Diseases that are "characterized by loss or dysfunction of myelin in the central or peripheral nervous system.
- Guillain-Barre syndrome : An acute, autoimmune, polyradiculoneuropathy affecting the peripheral nervous system.
- Multiple sclerosis : A chronic, inflammatory, demyelinating disease that affects the central nervous system (CNS).
- N-acetylaspartate : A putative reserve of acetyls for myelin synthesis in the brain.
- Neocortex : The six-layered outer layer of the mammalian brain.
- Nervous system : The control unit of bodily functions in animals.
- Neuron : An excitable cell that is specialized to conduct nerve impulses.
- Peripheral nervous system : The part of the nervous system consisting of the nerves and neurons that reside or extend outside the central nervous system (the brain and spinal cord) to serve the limbs and organs.