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- Adenine : A base incorporated into DNA and RNA and part of an energy carrier, as ATP, in metabolism.
- Allele : A specific sequence of a gene, and one of a pair in a diploid cell (one per chromosome).
- Amino acid : Biochemical with an amino group, a carboxyl group, a hydrogen atom, and a side chain bonded to a central carbon.
- Autism : Developmental disability that results from a disorder of the human central nervous system.
- Bacteria : A major group of single-celled microorganisms.
- Bacteriophage experimental evolution : Method of testing evolutionary theory under carefully designed, reproducible experiments using bacteriophages.
- Bacteriophage : A virus that infects bacteria; often called a phage.
- Biodiversity : The study of the range of life forms in a given ecosystem.
- Biology : The science of life — of complex, self-organizing, information-processing systems living in the past, present or future.
- Charles Darwin : (1809 – 1882) English natural scientist, most famous for proposing the theory of natural selection.
- Cholera : A life-threatening gastrointestinal infections disease caused by Vibrio cholerae, with a high mortality rate from dehydration unless treated, usually with oral rehydration therapy
- DNA : A macromolecule — chemically, a nucleic acid — that stores genetic information.
- Domestication : The process of habituating wild animals or plants to live in association with humans, thereby providing us with food, livestock and pets.
- Evolutionary psychology : The comparative study of the nervous system and its relation to behaviour across species.
- Genetics : The study of the inheritance of characteristics, genes and DNA.
- Gene : The functional unit of heredity.
- Germ cell : A kind of cell that is part of the germline, and is involved in the reproduction of organisms.
- Hemochromatosis : Hereditary disorder affecting iron metabolism in which excessive amounts of iron accumulate in the body tissues, characterized by diabetes mellitus, liver dysfunction, and a bronze pigmentation of the skin.
- Hereditary spherocytosis : Chronic congenital disorder of the erythrocytopoietic system characterized by a preponderance of fragile spherical erythrocytes, and haemolytic anaemia.
- Human uniqueness : A theoretical concept in evolutionary studies, often used in discussions about the evolution of biological traits found in humans.
- Hydroxyl : A molecule consisting of an oxygen atom and a hydrogen atom connected by a covalent bond (single bond).
- Hyperkalemic periodic paralysis : Genetic disorder, which occurs in humans and horses, characterized by muscle hyperexcitability or weakness which can lead to uncontrolled shaking followed by paralysis.
- Life extension : Medical and non-medical attempts to slow down or reverse the processes of aging, to extend both the maximum and average lifespan.
- Life : Living systems, of which biologists seek the commonalities distinguishing them from nonliving systems.
- Macroevolution : Describes macroevolution, research history and emphasis and its primary focus and role in the theories of evolution.
- Microorganism : A 'germ', an organism that is too small to be seen individually with the naked eye.
- Microsatellite : Polymorphic loci present in nuclear and organellar DNA that consist of repeating units of 1-6 base pairs in length.
- Mobile DNA : Blocks of DNA that are able to move and insert into new locations throughout the genome without needing DNA sequence similarity or requiring the process of homologous recombination to enable movement.
- Myelodysplastic syndrome : Haematological conditions united by ineffective production of blood cells and varying risks of transformation to acute myelogenous leukaemia.
- Natural selection : The differential survival and/or reproduction of classes of entities that differ in one or more characteristics
- Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine : Award conferred once a year since 1901 by the Swedish Karolinska Institute, for physiology or medicine.
- Plant breeding : The purposeful manipulation of plant species in order to create desired genotypes and phenotypes for specific purposes, such as food production, forestry, and horticulture.
- Prion : Simple proteins that do not contain any nucleic acid, thought to act as an infectious agent responsible for Creutzfeld-Jacob disease, kuru and possibly other degenerative diseases of the brain in humans, scrapie in sheep, and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE).
- Red Queen : An evolutionary hypothesis intended to explain two different phenomena: the advantage of sexual reproduction at the level of individuals, and the constant evolutionary arms race between competing species.
- Rejuvenation (aging) : Hypothetical reversal of the aging process, aiming to repair the damage that is associated with aging or replacement of damaged tissue with new tissue.
- Retrotransposon : Genetic elements that can amplify themselves in a genome with the use of reverse transcriptase, and are ubiquitous components of the DNA of many eukaryotic organisms.
- Sewall Wright : (1889–1988) A American geneticist known for his work on evolutionary theory and path analysis and one of the founders of theoretical population genetics.
- Single-nucleotide polymorphism : A DNA sequence variation across chromosomes within an individual or a species, involving only a single base change.
- Targeted gene replacement : Technique in which cloned DNA is introduced into mammalian stem cell culture, via gene modification in vitro.
- Transposons as a genetic tool : Semi-parasitic DNA sequences which can replicate and spread through the host's genome.
- Transposon : Blocks of conserved DNA that can occasionally move to different positions within the chromosomes of a cell.
- Vitamin C : Required by a few mammalian species, including humans and higher primates. It is water-soluble and is usually obtained by eating fruits and vegetables; associated with scurvy (hence its chemical name, ascorbic acid).