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- Adiposopathy : The dysfunction of fat cells.
- Archaea : A major group of numerous microorganisms fundamentally different from the bacteria and including many chemolithotrophs and extremophiles.
- Bacteriophage : A virus that infects bacteria; often called a phage.
- Biochemistry : The chemistry of living things; a field of both biology and chemistry.
- Biology : The science of life — of complex, self-organizing, information-processing systems living in the past, present or future.
- Cell (biology) : The basic unit of life, consisting of biochemical networks enclosed by a membrane.
- Cholesterol : Principal sterol of all higher animals.
- Dyslipidemia : Abnormal lipid serum levels, such as high total cholesterol or triglycerides, low HDL or high LDL cholesterol.
- Fat utilization hypothesis : Hypothesis that explains the major role of phospholipid and fatty acid metabolism played in human evolution.
- Fatty acid metabolism : Oxidative degradation of saturated fatty acids in which two-carbon units are sequentially removed from the molecule with each turn of the cycle, and metabolized so that it can be used as a source of energy in aerobic respiration.
- Golgi apparatus : An organelle in eukaryotic cells that modifies many proteins and lipids from the endoplasmic reticulum; it is named after Camillo Golgi who discovered it in 1898.
- Growth hormone : A peptide hormone that is made in and secreted from the somatotroph cells of the anterior pituitary gland, and which is essential for regulating post-natal growth in all mammals.
- Hormone : A chemical director of biological activity that travels through some portion of the body as a messenger.
- Human uniqueness : A theoretical concept in evolutionary studies, often used in discussions about the evolution of biological traits found in humans.
- Life : Living systems, of which biologists seek the commonalities distinguishing them from nonliving systems.
- Macromolecular chemistry : The study of the physical, biological and chemical structure, properties, composition, and reaction mechanisms of macromolecules.
- Magnetic resonance imaging : The use of magnetic fields and electromagnetic radiation to visualize internal structures of non-magnetic objects non-destructively.
- Maximum life span : Measure of the maximum amount of time one or more members of a group has been observed to survive between birth and death.
- Multiple sclerosis : A chronic, inflammatory, demyelinating disease that affects the central nervous system (CNS).
- Mycobacterium tuberculosis : A non-motile, rod shaped bacterium, and the primary cause of the disease tuberculosis.
- Myelin : The proteinaceous material constituting most of the insulating sheath that surrounds the axons of nerve cells.
- Organic chemistry : The scientific study of the structure, properties, composition, reactions, and preparation (by synthesis or by other means) of chemical compounds of carbon and hydrogen, which may contain any number of other elements.
- Phosphate : An inorganic chemical derived from a salt of phosphoric acid, and used in agriculture and industry.
- Proteus vulgaris : Rod-shaped, Gram negative bacterium that inhabits the intestinal tracts of humans and animals, and known to cause urinary tract infections and wound infections.
- Viral hemorrhagic fever : Illnesses that are caused by five distinct families of RNA viruses: the Arenaviridae, Filoviridae, Bunyaviridae, Togaviridae, and Flaviviridae, characterized by fever and bleeding disorders that can all progress to high fever, shock and death in extreme cases.
- Virology : The study of viruses, sometimes included in the field of microbiology.
- Vitamin K : It denotes a group of 2-methilo-naphthoquinone derivatives that acts as a lipid co-factor for hemostasis.