From Citizendium, the Citizens' Compendium
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- Abolla : A garment worn by Ancient Greeks and Romans.
- Ancient Celtic music : The music and instruments of the ancient Celts until late Antiquity.
- Architecture of the California Missions : Architectural style influenced by limitations in the construction materials that were on hand, an overall lack of skilled labor, and a desire on the part of the founding priests to emulate notable structures in their Spanish homeland.
- Augustus : Founder of the Roman Empire; first emperor.
- Battle of Sicily : In the Mediterranean Theater and Italian Campaign of the Second World War, an Allied invasion of Sicily night of 9 July, 1943, ending 17 August in an Allied victory with the Axis troops either surrendering or withdrawing to the mainland
- Caesar's Mushroom : Edible mushroom in the genus Amanita, native to southern Europe and North Africa.
- Catalog of political philosophers : Add brief definition or description
- Charlemagne : (742-814) King of the Franks and Holy Roman Emperor, rising to rule over most of Europe during his lifetime.
- Christianity : The largest world religion, which centers around the worship of one God, his son Jesus Christ, and his Holy Spirit.
- Christmas : Winter holiday beginning on 25th December; originated as a pagan festival but was adopted by early Christians to observe the birth of Jesus, and today is a major international event regardless of religious background.
- Clandestine human-source intelligence recruiting : The recruiting of human assets who do not work for a foreign intelligence service, as part of human-source intelligence.
- Communication : The set of interactive processes that create shared meaning.
- Country : Nation, state, region, or territory, or large tract of land distinguishable by features of topography, biology, or culture.
- Dialect continuum : Range of dialects spoken across a large geographical area, differing only slightly between areas that are geographically close, and gradually decreasing in mutual intelligibility as the distances become greater.
- Divine Comedy : An Italian epic poem, composed by Dante Alighieri, chronicling a man's journey through hell, purgatory, and paradise,
- Eamon Ceannt : Add brief definition or description
- England : The largest and southernmost country in the United Kingdom, and location of the largest city and seat of government, London; population about 51,000,000.
- Enrico Fermi : (1901-1954) Italian born nuclear physicist; designer of the first nuclear reactor.
- European Convention on Human Rights : Convention adopted under the auspices of the Council of Europe in 1950, to protect human rights and fundamental freedoms in Europe.
- Europe : Sixth largest continent; area 10,000,000 km2; pop. 720,000,000
- First Punic War : War between Carthage and the Roman Republic, from 264 to 241 BCE.
- Flamen Divi Iulii : The high priest of the cult surrounding the divinized Julius Caesar.
- Florence Nightingale : British nursing pioneer (12 May 1820 – 13 August 1910).
- French Third Republic : Add brief definition or description
- German Resistance : Individuals and groups in Nazi Germany who opposed the regime of Adolf Hitler between 1933 and 1945.
- Giuseppe Verdi : Italian 19th-century composer of operas and a Requiem.
- Ignjat Đurđević : (1675 – 1737) A baroque Dalmatian writer.
- Indo-European languages : A group of several hundred languages, including the majority of languages spoken in Europe, the Plateau of Iran and the subcontinent of India, that share a considerable common vocabulary and linguistic features.
- International Astronomical Union : Internationally recognized authority for assigning designations to celestial bodies (stars, planets, asteroids, etc), headquartered in Paris, France.
- Istituto Nazionale di Statistica : Add brief definition or description
- Italian language : A Romance language spoken in Italy and Switzerland.
- Italy : Southern European republic (population c. 58.1 million; capital Rome) that has northern borders with France, Switzerland, Austria and Slovenia, and coastlines on the Tyrrhenian, Mediterranean, Ionian and Adriatic seas; founding member of the European Union.
- Julius Evola : (1898 – 1974) Italian philosopher, artist, exoterist, and scholar of Oriental thinking.
- Lazio : Add brief definition or description
- Luciano Pavarotti : (12 October 1935 – 6 September 2007) Italian operatic tenor, who also crossed over into popular music, eventually becoming one of the most commercially successful tenors of all time.
- Marlies Göhr : (21 March 1958) Record-breaking East German sprinter who won the 100 m at the inaugural World Championships in 1983, defeating arch rival Evelyn Ashford.
- Maronite Church : Eastern Rite Catholic church centered in Lebanon.
- Martin Luther : German theologian and monk (1483-1546); led the Reformation; believed that salvation is granted on the basis of faith rather than deeds.
- Mission San Juan Capistrano : A former religious outpost established in 1776 on the west coast of North America in the present-day State of California by Roman Catholics of the Franciscan Order under the direction of the Spanish crown.
- Petroleum refining processes : The chemical engineering processes used in petroleum refining.
- Plutarch : (c. 46 – 120) Greek historian, biographer, essayist, and Middle Platonist known primarily for his Parallel Lives and Moralia.
- Pope John Paul II : Add brief definition or description
- Republic : A form of government in which political power and authority is derived from the citizenry, and not from a monarch, whether hereditary or "tyrannical" (ie, a dictator).
- Roman Empire : The period from the ascension of Augustus Caesar to the fall of the Empire.
- Senate (disambiguation) : Add brief definition or description
- Sephardi Jews : Add brief definition or description
- Seven hills of Rome : Add brief definition or description
- Soranus of Ephesus : (1st - 2nd century) Greek physician from Ephesus, who was one of the chief representatives of the Methodic school of medicine.
- Tiber : Main river of the city of Rome, Italy.
- UNESCO : Specialized agency of the UN, created in 1946, to aid peace by promoting international cooperation in education, science, and culture.
- Vatican City : City state in Europe.