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Europe/Related Articles

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A list of Citizendium articles, and planned articles, about Europe.
See also changes related to Europe, or pages that link to Europe or to this page or whose text contains "Europe".

Organisations

  • Commonwealth of Independent States [r]: Regional organization, founded in 1991 by Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine, whose participating countries are former Soviet Republics. [e]
  • European Central Bank [r]: The central bank for Europe's single currency, the euro, whose monetary policy is primarily required to maintain the euro's purchasing power. [e]
  • European Economic Area [r]: (EEA) The outcome of an agreement that links Iceland, Norway and Liechtenstein to the European Union's common market, and covers freedom of movement of goods, persons, services and capital, social policy, consumer protection, and environment policy, but not agriculture and fisheries. [e]
  • European Free Trade Association [r]: (EFTA) Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway and Switzerland (members of the EFTA convention, covering trade investment and the free movement of persons). [e]
  • European Union [r]: Political and economic association of 28 European states. [e]
  • European Environment Agency [r]: An agency of the European Union (EU) established as a major source of information and data for developing, adopting, implementing and evaluating environmental policy by member European countries. [e]
  • Eurozone [r]: The member states of the European Union that use the euro as their common currency (Belgium, Germany¸ Ireland, Greece, Spain, France, Italy, Cyprus, Luxembourg, Malta, The Netherlands, Austria, Portugal, Slovenia, Slovakia, and Finland) [e]
  • Newly Independent States [r]: (NIS) The countries that were formerly Soviet republics; sometimes used excluding Russia and the Baltic states. [e]
  • Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe [r]: (OSCE) An organisation for preventive diplomacy, conflict prevention and crisis management, and post-conflict reconstruction, comprising member countries of the Council of Europe together with the United States and Canada. [e]

Countries

(See also the states of Europe datatable)

  • Albania [r]: Republic in south-eastern Europe (population c. 3.6 million; capital Tirana), with a long Adriatic coastline on the west and land borders with Montenegro, Kosovo, Macedonia and Greece. [e]
  • Andorra [r]: Small landlocked country in western Europe, located in the eastern Pyrenees mountains and bordered by Spain and France. [e]
  • Armenia [r]: A mountainous country in the Middle East, formerly part of the Soviet Union. [e]
  • Austria [r]: Federal republic in central Europe (population c. 8.2 million; capital Vienna), bordered to the north by Germany and the Czech Republic; to the south by Italy and Slovenia; to the west by Switzerland and Liechtenstein; and to the east by Hungary and Slovakia. [e]
  • Belarus [r]: A landlocked country in Eastern Europe. [e]
  • Belgium [r]: Federal monarchy (population c. 10.5 million; capital Brussels) in western Europe, located between France, Germany and the Netherlands, and with a short coastline on the North Sea; founding member of the European Union. [e]
  • Bosnia and Herzegovina [r]: Formerly part of Yugoslavia, a mountainous federal democratic republic (population c. 4.6 million; capital Sarajevo) bordering Croatia, Serbia and Montenegro, and with a few kilometres of Adriatic coast on the southern tip of the country. [e]
  • Bulgaria [r]: Mountainous republic (population c. 7.3 million; capital Sofia) in south-eastern Europe, bordered by Romania to the north (with River Danube as border); the Black Sea to the east; Greece and Turkey to the south; and Yugoslavia and Macedonia to the west. [e]
  • Croatia [r]: South-east European republic (population c. 4.5 million; capital Zagreb), located south of Slovenia and Hungary, west of Serbia, and north and west of Bosnia and Herzegovina, and with a long Adriatic coastline to its west. [e]
  • Cyprus [r]: Contested eastern Mediterranean island republic (population c. 793,000; capital Nicosia (Lefkosia)), divided between Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (TRNC, recognised only by Turkey) in the north and Greek Cypriot Republic of Cyprus (Cyprus) in the south. [e]
  • Czech Republic [r]: Landlocked republic (population c. 10.2 million; capital Prague) comprising the territories of Bohemia and Moravia; formerly part of Czechoslovakia; bordered by Germany, Poland, Slovakia and Austria. [e]
  • Denmark [r]: Constitutional monarchy and multiparty democracy (population c. 5.5 million; capital Copenhagen); the most southerly Scandinavian nation, comprising the Jutland Peninsula, the islands of Sjaelland, Fyn, Lolland and Falster, and more than 400 smaller islands. [e]
  • Estonia [r]: Baltic republic (population c. 1.3 million; capital Tallinn) bordered by Latvia to the south and the Russian Federation to the east; it includes more than 1500 islands, and its people are more closely related to the Finns than those of the other Baltic states, Latvia and Lithuania. [e]
  • Finland [r]: Scandinavian republic (population c. 5.2 million; capital Helsinki) bordered by Norway and Sweden to the north and west and the Russian Federation to the east; a low-lying country of forests and almost 188,000 lakes. [e]
  • France [r]: Western European republic (population c. 64.1 million; capital Paris) extending across Europe from the English Channel in the north-west to the Mediterranean in the south-east; bounded by Belgium, Luxembourg, Germany, Switzerland, Italy, Monaco, Andorra and Spain; founding member of the European Union. Colonial power in Southeast Asia until 1954. [e]
  • Georgia [r]: A country in the Caucasus to the southeast of Continental Europe and at the east coast of the Black Sea. [e]
  • Germany [r]: Federal republic in central Europe (population c. 82.4 million; capital Berlin), with the North Sea, Denmark and the Baltic Sea to the north; Poland and the Czech Republic to the east; Switzerland and Austria to the south; and France, Luxembourg, Belgium and the Netherlands to the west; founding member of the European Union. [e]
  • Greece [r]: The southernmost Balkan nation, the Hellenic Republic (Greece; population c. 11 million; capital Athens) is bordered by Albania, the (former Yugoslav) Republic of Macedonia, Bulgaria and Turkey, and with a coastline on the Ionian, Aegean and Mediterranean seas. [e]
  • Hungary [r]: Landlocked central European republic (population c. 9.9 million; capital Budapest) in the Carpathian Basin, bordered by Austria, Slovakia, Ukraine, Romania, Serbia, Croatia and Slovenia. [e]
  • Iceland [r]: Sparsely populated island country in the northern Atlantic Ocean with capital city Reykjavík. [e]
  • Ireland [r]: Republic (population c. 4.2 million; capital Dublin) comprising about 85% of the Atlantic island of Ireland, west of Great Britain. [e]
  • Italy [r]: Southern European republic (population c. 58.1 million; capital Rome) that has northern borders with France, Switzerland, Austria and Slovenia, and coastlines on the Tyrrhenian, Mediterranean, Ionian and Adriatic seas; founding member of the European Union. [e]
  • Kosovo [r]: Country in south-eastern Europe which declared independence from Serbia in 2008 - not officially recognised by the United Nations. [e]
  • Latvia [r]: Small republic (population c. 2.3 million; capital Riga) on the eastern coast of the Baltic Sea; lies between Estonia and Lithuania, with Russian Federation and Belorussia to the east. [e]
  • Liechtenstein [r]: A doubly landlocked alpine microstate in Western Europe, bordered by Switzerland to the west and south and by Austria to the east. [e]
  • Lithuania [r]: Former Soviet republic (population c. 3.6 million; capital Vilnius) bordered by Latvia, Belorussia, Poland and the Russian Federation, and with a short coastline on the Baltic Sea. [e]

  • Luxembourg [r]: Constitutional monarchy (Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; population c. 486,000; capital Luxembourg) surrounded by Belgium, France and Germany; founding member of the European Union. [e]
  • Republic of Macedonia [r]: Former Yugoslav republic (population c. 2.1 million; capital Skopje), landlocked in south-eastern Europe between Kosovo and Serbia to the north and Greece to the south, Albania to the west and Bulgaria to the east. [e]
  • Malta [r]: An island republic (population c. 403,500; capital Valletta) lying in the Mediterranean Sea, midway between Europe and North Africa; of the four main islands of the Maltese Archipelago, Gozo, Malta and Kummuna are inhabited and Filfla is not. [e]
  • Moldova [r]: Landlocked country in Eastern Europe, located between Romania to the west and Ukraine to the north, east and south. [e]
  • Monaco [r]: Small, sovereign city-state on the Mediterranean Sea, entirely surrounded by France. [e]
  • Montenegro [r]: South-east European, former Yugoslav republic (population c. 678,000; capital Podgorica) off the north-eastern Adriatic Sea, bordering Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia, Kosovo and Albania. [e]
  • Netherlands [r]: Constitutional monarchy (population c. 16.6 million; capital Amsterdam) located at the delta of three major rivers (Rhine, Maas or Meuse, and Schelde) in north-western Europe; situated between Germany and Belgium, and bordering the North Sea to the north and west; founding member of the European Union. [e]
  • Norway [r]: A constitutional monarchy in northern Europe on the western side of the Scandinavian Peninsula. [e]
  • Poland [r]: Central European republic (population c. 38.5 million; capital Warsaw) extending from the Baltic Sea in the north to the Tatry Mountains on its southern borders with the Czech Republic and Slovakia; also borders Germany to the west, the Russian Federation and Lithuania to the north-east, and Belorussia and Ukraine to the east. [e]
  • Portugal [r]: South-west European republic (population c. 10.7 million; capital Lisbon) on the western side of the Iberian Peninsula, with a long Atlantic coastline to its west and bordering Spain to the north and east. [e]
  • Romania [r]: South-east European republic (population c. 22.2 million; capital Bucharest) on the western shore of the Black Sea, and divided by the arc of the Carpathian Mountains, which enclose the Transylvanian basin in the north-west; borders Ukraine, Moldavia, Hungary, Serbia and Bulgaria. [e]
  • Russia [r]: A country in northern Eurasia, with an area of 17 million km², currently the largest on our planet. [e]
  • San Marino [r]: Landlocked republic in central Italy, located on the north-east side of the Apennine Mountains near Rimini. [e]
  • Serbia [r]: Landlocked, former Yugoslav republic (population c. 10.2 million; capital Belgrade) in south-eastern Europe, having borders with Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria, Macedonia, Kosovo, Montenegro, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Croatia. [e]
  • Slovakia [r]: The Slovak Republic (population c. 5.5 million; capital Bratislava) is a landlocked nation adjoining Austria to the west, the Czech Republic to the north-west, Poland to the north, Ukraine to the east and Hungary to the south. [e]
  • Slovenia [r]: Former Yugoslav republic (population c. 2 million; capital Ljubljana) at the north-eastern end of the Adriatic Sea, and bordering Italy and Austria to the alpine west and north, Hungary to the north-east, and Croatia along a long frontier to the east and south. [e]
  • Spain [r]: South-west European parliamentary monarchy (population c. 40.5 million; capital Madrid) between the Atlantic Ocean and Bay of Biscay to the north-west and the Mediterranean Sea to the south and east; the Pyrenees mountain range forms the border with France to the north-east, and Portugal is situated to the west. [e]
  • Sweden [r]: Constitutional monarchy (population c. 9 million; capital Stockholm) situated on the Scandinavian Peninsula, between Norway and Finland; has a long eastern coastline on the Baltic Sea and the Gulf of Bothnia. [e]
  • Switzerland [r]: A country in western Europe known for its banking industry and for being a neutral country since early 19th century. [e]
  • Turkey [r]: A secular Islamic republic (population 71.9 million; capital Ankara) extending from Eastern Thrace in Europe across the peninsula of Asia Minor; meets the Black Sea to the north, the Aegean to the west and the Mediterranean to the south; has land borders with Greece and Bulgaria in Europe, and Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Iran, Iraq and Syria. [e]
  • Ukraine [r]: A large Slavic nation in Eastern Europe whose capital is Kyiv (Kiev). [e]
  • United Kingdom [r]: Constitutional monarchy which includes England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. [e]
  • Vatican City [r]: City state in Europe. [e]