Europe/Addendum

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This addendum is a continuation of the article Europe.

The states of Europe

This list doesn't include the following de facto independent territories, with no or very little international recognition: Abkhazia, Nagorno-Karabakh, Northern Cyprus, South Ossetia and Transnistria.

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
state

(CIA & EIU links)

capital official
state
language
area
(km²)
population
(2010)[1]
European
Union
/
etc
member
eurozone
member
Council
of
Europe

member
NATO
member
GDP/head
2009
$
[2]
exports
 % GDP
2009
[3]
public
debt
% GDP
2009
unemploy-
ment %
2009
IMF
category
[4]
Albania[2] Tirana Albanian
28,748
2,986,952
application
submitted
CoE
NATO
     8,373    29    58       12.8    E[3]
Andorra Andorra la Vella Catalan
468
84,525
             7.0    
Armenia[4]
(edge of Europe)
Yerevan Armenian
29,743
2,966,802
PCA[5]
NATO
   12       7.1    E[5]
Austria[6][7] Vienna German
83,871
8,214,160
EU S[6]
CoE
   38,363       66       4.8    A[8]
Azerbaijan
[9][10]
(edge of Europe)
Baku Azeri
86,600
8,303,512
PCA[5]
CoE
    9,638    51           6.0    E[11]
Belarus[12][13] Minsk Belarussian
207,600
9,612,632
   13,039    51           1.0    E[14]
Belgium[15][16] Brussels Dutch,
French,
German
30,528
10,423,493
EU S[6]
CoE
NATO
   36,249    73    101       7.9    A[17]
Bosnia and Herzegovina
[18][19]
Sarajevo Bosnian,
Croatian,
Serbian
51,197
4,621,598
potential
candidate
  € peg[7]
CoE
    8,491    33    44       40    E[20]
Bulgaria[21][22] Sofia Bulgarian
110,879
7,148,78
EU
  € peg[7]
CoE
NATO
   13,332    48    15       9.1    E[23]
Croatia[24][25] Zagreb Croatian
56,594
4,486,881
EU
CoE
NATO
   19,805    36    46       16    E[26]
Cyprus[27]
(edge of Europe)
Nicosia Greek,
Turkish
9,251
1,102,677
EU
CoE
      52       5.3    A[28]
Czechia[29][30] Prague Czech
78,867
10,201,707
EU S[6]
CoE
NATO
   25,232    70    34       8.1    A;[31]
Denmark[32][33] Copenhagen Danish
43,094
5,515,575
EU S[6]
  € peg[7]
CoE
NATO
   36,762    48    42       4.3    A[34]
Estonia[35][36] Tallinn Estonian
45,228
1,291,170
EU S[6]
CoE
NATO
   19,451    71    7       13.8    E[37]
Finland[38][39] Helsinki Finnish,
Swedish
338,145
5,255,068
EU S[6]
CoE
   34,720    37    40       8.2    A[40]
France[41][42] Paris French
551,500[8]
643,427[9]
62,814,233[8]
64,768,389[9]
EU S[6]
CoE
NATO
   33,655    23    78       9.1    A[43]
Georgia[44]
(edge of Europe)
Tbilisi Georgian
69,700
4,600,825
PCA[5]
CoE
    4,774    30               E[45]
Germany[46][47] Berlin German
357,022
82,282,988
EU S[6]
CoE
NATO
   36,267    41    73       7.5    A[48]
Greece[49][50] Athens Greek
131,957
10,749,943
EU S[6]
CoE
NATO
   29,663    19    113       9.4    A[51]
Hungary[52][53] Budapest Hungarian
93,028
9,992,339
EU S[6]
  € peg[7]
CoE
NATO
   19,764       78       10    E[54]
Iceland[55][56] Reykjavík Icelandic
103,000
308,910
candidate
EEA[10]
S[6]
CoE
NATO
   37,595    53    114       8.0    A[57]
Ireland[58][59] Dublin Irish,
English
70,273
4,622,917
EU
CoE
   41,278    89    65       11.8    A[60]
Italy[61][62] Rome Italian
301,340
58,090,681
EU S[6]
CoE
NATO
   31,909    24    116       7.8    A[63]
Kazakhstan
[64][65]
(edge of Europe)
Astana
(in Asia)
Kazakh
2,724,900
15,460,484
PCA[5]
   11,509    52    14       6.3    E[66]
Kosovo[67][68] Priština Albanian,
Serbian
10,887
1,815,048
potential
candidate
        41           16.6    [69]
Latvia[70][71] Riga Latvian
64,589
2,217,969
EU S[6]
  € peg[7]
CoE
NATO
   15,413    42    37       17    E[72]
Liechtenstein[73] Vaduz German
160
35,002
 EEA[10]
CoE
          
Lithuania[74][75] Vilnius Lithuanian
65,300
3,545,319
EU S[6]
  € peg[7]
CoE
NATO
   16,747        30       14    E[76]
Luxembourg[77] Luxembourg German/
Luxembourgish,
French
2,586
497,538
EU S[6]
CoE
NATO
   [11]    169           5.7    A[78]
Republic of Macedonia
(FYROM)[79]
Skopje Macedonian
25,713
2,072,086
candidate
CoE
   10,823    44           32    E[80]
Malta[81]
(edge of Europe)
Valletta Maltese,
English
316
406,771
EU S[6]
CoE
          69       7.0    A[82]
Moldova[83] Chișinău Romanian
(“Moldovan”)
33,851
4,317,483
CoE
    2,854    37           3.1    E[84]
Monaco[85] (city-sate) French
2
30,586
CoE
                     
Montenegro[86][87] Podgorica Serbian
(“Montenegrin”)
13,812
666,730
candidate
CoE
   13,292    33    38       15    E[88]
Netherlands[89][90] The Hague,
Amsterdam
Dutch
41,543
16,783,092
EU S[6]
CoE
NATO
   40,715    69    61       4.5    A[91]
Norway[92][93] Oslo Norwegian
323,802
4,676,305
 EEA[10]
S[6]
CoE
NATO
   55,672    42    50       3.2    A[94]
Poland[95][96] Warsaw Polish
312,685
38,463,689
EU S[6]
  € peg[7]
CoE
NATO
   19,059    39    46       11    E[97]
Portugal[98][99] Lisbon Portuguese
92,090
10,735,765
EU S[6]
CoE
NATO
   24,569    28    77       9.5    A[100]
Romania[101][102] Bucharest Romanian
238,391
21,959,278
EU
CoE
NATO
   14,199    33    24       7.8    E[103]
Russia[104][105]
(edge of Europe)
Moscow Russian
17,098,242
139,390,205
CoE
   18,962    28           8.4    E[106]
San Marino City of
San Marino
Italian
61
31,477
CoE
                 
Serbia[107] Belgrade Serbian
77,474
7,344,847[12]
application
submitted
CoE
   11,719    27    31       17    E[108]
Slovakia[109][110] Bratislava Slovakian
49,035
5,470,306
EU S[6]
CoE
NATO
   22,356    99    36       11    A[111]
Slovenia[112][113] Ljubljana Slovenian
20,273
2,003,136
EU S[6]
CoE
NATO
   27,004    59    31       9.2    A[114]
Spain[115][116] Madrid Spanish
505,370
46,505,963
EU S[6]
CoE
NATO
   32,545    23    53       18    A[117]
Sweden[118][119] Stockholm Swedish
450,295
9,074,055
EU S[6]
CoE
   37,905    42    42       8.3    A[120]
Switzerland[121][122] Bern German,
French,
Italian,
Romansh
41,277
7,623,438
 EFTA[13]
S[6]
CoE
   45,117    52    41       3.7    A[123]
Turkey[124][125]
(edge of Europe)
Ankara Turkish
783,562
77,804,122
candidate
CoE
NATO
   13,885    23    46       14    E[126]
Ukraine[127][128] Kiev Ukrainian
603,550
45,415,596
PCA[5]
CoE
    6,317    46           8.8    A[129]
United Kingdom[130] London English
243,610
62,348,447
EU
CoE
NATO
   36,496    28    68       7.5    A[131]
Vatican City (city-state,
inside
Rome)
Italian,
Latin
0.44
829
                 

The languages of Europe

The following list presents the current, autochthonous languages of Europe, classified by language families and listed according to scientific surveys[14] (even if some authorities may differ on some points from the tabulation here). Various, recently claimed languages that are not widely—or not yet—recognised by the linguist community are not listed here. Each table matches with a lower range language family. Languages are presented in a geographic order, mainly from west to east and from north to south.

Basque language

language approximate
location
official status in:
(R = regional, official status)
vitality
Basque Spain, France Spain (R) endangered

Indo-European languages

Celtic languages

language approximate
location
official status in:
(R = regional, official status)
vitality
Irish Ireland, United Kingdom Ireland endangered
Scottish Gaelic United Kingdom United Kingdom (R) endangered
Manx Isle of Man endangered
Welsh (Cymric) United Kingdom United Kingdom (R) endangered
Cornish United Kingdom endangered
Breton France endangered

Germanic languages

language approximate
location
official status in:
(R = regional, official status)
vitality
Icelandic Iceland Iceland
Faroese Faroe Islands Faroe Islands (R)
Norwegian Norway Norway
Swedish Sweden, Finland Sweden, Finland
Danish Denmark, Sweden Denmark (endangered in Sweden)
English United Kingdom United Kingdom, Ireland
Frisian Netherlands, Germany endangered
Dutch (Netherlandic) Netherlands, Belgium, France, Germany Netherlands, Belgium
Low German (Low Saxon, Saxon) Germany, Netherlands endangered
German (High German) Germany, Austria, Switzerland, Luxembourg, Liechtenstein, Italy, France Germany, Austria, Switzerland, Luxembourg, Liechtenstein, Italy (R) (endangered in France)
Yiddish scattered across Central Europe endangered

Romance languages

language approximate
location
official status in:
(R = regional, official status)
vitality
Galician-Portuguese Portugal, Spain Portugal, Spain (R) (endangered in Spain)
Asturian-Leonese Spain, Portugal Portugal (R) endangered
Spanish (Castilian) Spain Spain
Aragonese Spain endangered
Catalan Spain, France, Andorra, Italy Andorra, Spain (R) endangered
Occitan (Lenga d'Òc, Provençal) France, Italy, Spain, Monaco Spain (R) endangered
Francoprovençal (Arpitan) France, Switzerland, Italy endangered
French (Langue d'Oïl) France, Belgium, Switzerland, Channel Islands France, Belgium, Switzerland, Luxembourg, Monaco (endangered in the Channel Islands)
Romansh Switzerland Switzerland endangered
Ladin Italy endangered
Friulian Italy endangered
Northern Italian (Padanian) Italy, Switzerland, Monaco, San Marino, Slovenia, Croatia endangered
Italian Italy Italy, Switzerland, San Marino
Corsican France, Italy endangered
Sardinian Italy endangered
Romanian Romania, Moldova, Balkans Romania, Moldova

Baltic languages

language approximate
location
official status in:
(R = regional, official status)
vitality
Latvian Latvia Latvia
Lithuanian Lithuania Lithuania

Slavic languages

language approximate
location
official status in:
(R = regional, official status)
vitality
Sorbian (Lusatian) Germany Germany (R) endangered
Kashubian Poland endangered
Polish Poland Poland
Czech Czechia Czechia
Slovakian Slovakia Slovakia
Belarussian Belarus, Russia Belarus endangered
Ukrainian Ukraine, Poland, Slovakia Ukraine
Russian Russia Russia, Belarus, Moldova (R)
Slovenian Slovenia, Italy, Austria Slovenia (endangered in Italy and Austria)
Croatian (Serbo-Croatian) Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnian (Serbo-Croatian) Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnia and Herzegovina
Serbian (Serbo-Croatian) (including Montenegrin) Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo, Croatia Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo
Macedonian (Slavomacedonian) Republic of Macedonia, Greece Republic of Macedonia (endangered in Greece)
Bulgarian Bulgaria, Greece Bulgaria (endangered in Greece)

Albanian

language approximate
location
official status in:
(R = regional, official status)
vitality
Albanian Albania, Kosovo, Republic of Macedonia, Greece Albania, Kosovo (endangered in Greece)

Greek

language approximate
location
official status in:
(R = regional, official status)
vitality
Greek (Hellenic) Greece, Cyprus, Albania, Turkey Greece, Albania (endangered in Albania, Turkey and Northern Cyprus)

Indo-Iranian languages

language approximate
location
official status in:
(R = regional, official status))
vitality
Ossetic Russia, South Ossetia South Ossetia endangered
Zaza Turkey endangered
Kurdish Turkey endangered
language approximate
location
official status in:
(R = regional, official status)
vitality
Romany (Romani, Gypsy, Gipsy) scattered across Europe endangered

Armenian

language approximate
location
official status in:
(R = regional, official status)
vitality
Armenian Armenia, Nagorno-Karabakh, Turkey Armenia, Nagorno-Karabakh (endangered in Turkey)

Afro-Asiatic languages

Semitic languages

language approximate
location
official status in:
(R = regional, official status)
vitality
Maltese Malta Malta
Arabic Turkey (endangered in Turkey)
Aramaic Turkey endangered

Uralic languages

Finno-Ugric languages

language approximate
location
official status in:
(R = regional, official status)
vitality
Sami (Lappish) Norway, Sweden, Finland, Russia endangered
Finnish (including Karelian) Finland, Russia, Sweden Finland (endangered in Russia and Sweden)
Estonian Estonia Estonia
Livonian Latvia endangered
Veps Russia endangered
Komi Russia Russia (R) endangered
Udmurt Russia Russia (R) endangered
Mari Russia Russia (R) endangered
Erza Russia Russia (R) endangered
Moksha Russia Russia (R) endangered
Hungarian (Magyar) Hungary, Slovakia, Romania, Austria, Serbia Hungary (endangered in Slovakia, Romania, Austria and Serbia)

Samoyedic languages

language approximate
location
official status in:
(R = regional, official status)
vitality
Nenets Russia endangered

Altaic languages

Turkic languages

language approximate
location
official status in:
(R = regional, official status)
vitality
Turkish Turkey, Cyprus, Greece, Bulgaria Turkey, Cyprus (endangered in Greece and Bulgaria)
Gagauz Moldova, Ukraine Moldova (R) endangered
Chuvash Russia Russia (R) endangered
Crimean Tatar Ukraine endangered
Volga Tatar (Kazan Tatar) Russia Russia (R) endangered
Bashkort (Bashkir) Russia Russia (R) endangered
Kumyk Russia endangered
Karachay-Balkar Russia Russia (R) endangered
Nogay Russia Russia (R) endangered
Azeri (Azerbaijani) Azerbaijan, Iran Azerbaijan

Mongolian

language approximate
location
official status in:
(R = regional, official status)
vitality
Mongolian (including Kalmyk) Russia Russia (R) endangered

North Caucasian languages

The unity of the North Caucasian family is debated among specialists.

Northwest Caucasian languages

language approximate
location
official status in:
(R = regional, official status)
vitality
Abkhaz-Abaza Abkhazia, Russia Abkhazia endangered
Circassian (Adyghe, Kabardian) Russia Russia (R) endangered

Northeast Caucasian languages

language approximate
location
official status in:
(R = regional, official status)
vitality
Chechen Russia Russia (R) endangered
Ingush Russia Russia (R) endangered
many languages of Daghestan, including: Bats, Avar, Andi, Lak, Dargwa, Lezgian, Tabasaran, Aghul, Udi, Rutul, etc. Russia, Azerbaijan (R) (for some of them) endangered

Kartvelian languages (South Caucasian languages)

language approximate
location
official status in:
(R = regional, official status)
vitality
Georgian Georgia Georgia
Svan Georgia endangered
Mingrelian Georgia endangered
Laz Turkey, Georgia endangered

Footnotes

  1. Estimation in 2010 according to The World Factbook (CIA)
  2. At purchasing power parity rates[1]
  3. Exports of goods and services (% of GDP), World Bank, 2010
  4. A = advanced, E = developing and emerging
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 Has a Partnership and Cooperation Agreement with the EU
  6. 6.00 6.01 6.02 6.03 6.04 6.05 6.06 6.07 6.08 6.09 6.10 6.11 6.12 6.13 6.14 6.15 6.16 6.17 6.18 6.19 6.20 6.21 6.22 6.23 6.24 Schengen agreement member
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 7.6 Non-member with currency pegged to the euro
  8. 8.0 8.1 Without overseas regions.
  9. 9.0 9.1 With overseas regions.
  10. 10.0 10.1 10.2 Member of the European Economic Area
  11. The published GDP/head figure for Luxembourg is misleading because much of its output if produced by foreign commutors
  12. Without Kosovo.
  13. Member of the European Free Trade Association (with Iceland, Liechtenstein and Norway)
  14. See, for example: BADIA I CAPDEVILA Ignasi (2002) Diccionari de les llengües d’Europa, coll. Diccionaris temàtics, Barcelona: Enciclopèdia Catalana.