From Citizendium, the Citizens' Compendium
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- Balkan peninsula : Geographic name for a region of southeastern Europe, surrounded by the Black Sea to the east, by Aegean, Mediterranean and Ionian Sea to the south, and by the Adriatic Sea to the west.
- Black Sea : A non-tidal body of water on the borders of south-east Europe, linking to the Mediterranean.
- Casa Capşa : A historic restaurant in Bucharest, Romania, first established in 1852.
- Cold War : Geostrategic, economic and ideological struggle from about 1947 to 1991 between the Soviet Union and the United States and their allies.
- Comintern : Also known as the Third International or the Communist International, a world Communist organization, under effective Soviet control, which existed from 1919 to 1943
- Communism : A political ideology, and also a system of government, according to which the means of production (including all large business concerns) should be controlled by the government.
- Country : Nation, state, region, or territory, or large tract of land distinguishable by features of topography, biology, or culture.
- Danube River : Europe's second longest river, about 2860 km long, second only to the Volga River.
- Dialect continuum : Range of dialects spoken across a large geographical area, differing only slightly between areas that are geographically close, and gradually decreasing in mutual intelligibility as the distances become greater.
- Esperanto : Artificial language created by L.L. Zamenhof in the late 19th century.
- European Union : Political and economic association of 28 European states.
- Europe : Sixth largest continent; area 10,000,000 km2; pop. 720,000,000
- Euro : The official currency of the European Monetary Union.
- Frank Stapleton : (born July 10, 1956 in Dublin) A former football player from Ireland.
- Gasoline : A fuel for spark-ignited internal combustion engines derived from petroleum crude oil.
- International Mathematical Olympiad : Annual mathematics contest for high school students from across the world.
- Iran-Iraq War : War between Iran and Iraq, 1980-1988, with very high casualties on both sides, but an inconclusive result
- Lactobacillus delbrueckii : An anaerobic, Gram-positive bacterium found in dairy products such as yogurt, milk, and cheese.
- List of rivers by length : Add brief definition or description
- Macedonian language : A language in the Eastern group of South Slavic languages and the official language of the Republic of Macedonia.
- Manichaeism : Religious movement popular in Persia and the Middle East circa. third century CE, combining Zoroastrian and Christian beliefs. Beliefs are broadly dualistic, seeing the world as being a battle between good and evil.
- Mountain range : Chain of mountains bordered by highlands or separated from other mountains by passes or valleys.
- Pagania : Add brief definition or description
- Republic of Macedonia : Former Yugoslav republic (population c. 2.1 million; capital Skopje), landlocked in south-eastern Europe between Kosovo and Serbia to the north and Greece to the south, Albania to the west and Bulgaria to the east.
- Romanian language : A Romance language spoken in southeastern Europe, mainly in Romania and Moldova.
- Romania : South-east European republic (population c. 22.2 million; capital Bucharest) on the western shore of the Black Sea, and divided by the arc of the Carpathian Mountains, which enclose the Transylvanian basin in the north-west; borders Ukraine, Moldavia, Hungary, Serbia and Bulgaria.
- Russian language : Widely-used member of the Slavic languages, written in the Cyrillic alphabet and spoken across Eurasia.
- Sephardi Jews : Add brief definition or description
- Serbia : Landlocked, former Yugoslav republic (population c. 10.2 million; capital Belgrade) in south-eastern Europe, having borders with Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria, Macedonia, Kosovo, Montenegro, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Croatia.
- Soviet support for Iran during the Iran-Iraq War : Soviet efforts to maintain a positive relationship during and after the Iran-Iraq War; they regarded Iran as more strategically important than Iraq
- Treaty of Neuilly-sur-Seine : Treaty drawn up between the victorious Allied Powers of World War One and Bulgaria, a minor Central Power in the war.
- Treaty of Versailles : The treaty developed at the Paris Peace Conference following World War I.
- Turkey : A secular Islamic republic (population 71.9 million; capital Ankara) extending from Eastern Thrace in Europe across the peninsula of Asia Minor; meets the Black Sea to the north, the Aegean to the west and the Mediterranean to the south; has land borders with Greece and Bulgaria in Europe, and Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Iran, Iraq and Syria.
- Turkish language : Turkic language mainly spoken in Turkey and among Turkish-speaking populations in several countries.
- Vipera ammodytes montandoni : Venomous viper subspecies found in Bulgaria and southern Romania.
- William Ewart Gladstone : (1809-1898) The great Liberal prime minister of Britain's 19th century golden age of parliamentary government.
- Zaza Pachulia : Add brief definition or description
- Zeppelin : A type of rigid airship pioneered by German Count Ferdinand von Zeppelin in the early 20th century.