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- Adenosine triphosphate : A molecule sometimes called the "energy currency" of a cell
- Amino acid : Biochemical with an amino group, a carboxyl group, a hydrogen atom, and a side chain bonded to a central carbon.
- Animal : A multicellular organism that feeds on other organisms, and is distinguished from plants, fungi, and unicellular organisms.
- Antibiotic resistance : The development of resistance to an antibiotic in an organism originally susceptible to it
- Antigen : A molecule that induces an immune response, such as bee pollen or proteins from viruses or bacteria.
- Antonie van Leeuwenhoek : (1632 - 1723) Dutch scientist who discovered single-celled organisms.
- Archaea : A major group of numerous microorganisms fundamentally different from the bacteria and including many chemolithotrophs and extremophiles.
- Atmosphere : The layers of gas surrounding stars and planets.
- Autoclave : A device that applies both heat and pressure to sterilize equipment, food or liquids.
- Bacillus anthracis : The bacterium that causes anthrax. It is a Select Agent and a high-risk biological weapon.
- Bacillus subtilis : A Gram-positive, rod-shaped, endospore-forming bacteria, originally called Vibrio subtilis.
- Bacterial cell structure : Morphological and genetic features of unicellular prokaryotic organisms characterized by the lack of a membrane-bound nucleus and membrane-bound organelles.
- Bacteria : A major group of single-celled microorganisms.
- Bacteriology : The branch of microbiology concerned with the study, use, and control of bacteria
- Biodiversity : The study of the range of life forms in a given ecosystem.
- Biology : The science of life — of complex, self-organizing, information-processing systems living in the past, present or future.
- Biotechnology : The application of biological principles in industrial production
- Cryobiology : The study of living organisms, organs, biological tissues or biological cells at low temperatures.
- Decontamination : The efforts to safeguard property and people that have been exposed to chemical, nuclear, or biological agents.
- Earth : The third planet from the Sun in our solar system; the only place in the universe known by humanity to harbor life.
- Ecosystem : A space in which multiple biological species interact.
- Evolution of cells : The birth of cells marked the passage from pre-biotic chemistry to partitioned units resembling modern cells.
- Evolution : A change over time in the proportions of individual organisms differing genetically.
- Exponential growth : Increase of a quantity x with time t according to the equation x = Kat, where K and a are constants, a is greater than 1, and K is greater than 0.
- Fermentation (food) : The conversion of nutrients to desired products, such as ethanol, acetic acid or acetone, using yeast, bacteria, or a combination thereof
- Fungus : A eukaryotic organism, classified into the kingdom Fungi, that is heterotrophic and digest their food externally, and may be a yeast, mold, or mushroom.
- Geomicrobiology : Study of microbes within inorganic environments, such as sedimentary rocks and aquifers.
- Geophysics : The study of the Earth by quantitative physical methods, namely seismic, magnetic, electrical, electromagnetic, thermal and radioactivity methods.
- Glyoxylate cycle : Metabolic pathway in some orgnaisms which uses acetyl CoAs to synthesize carbohydrates.
- Halobacterium NRC-1 : A microorganism from the Archaea kingdom perfectly suited for life in highly saline environments giving biologists an ideal specimen for genetic studies.
- Horizontal gene transfer : Transfer of genetic material to a being other than one of the donor's offspring.
- Human uniqueness : A theoretical concept in evolutionary studies, often used in discussions about the evolution of biological traits found in humans.
- Life : Living systems, of which biologists seek the commonalities distinguishing them from nonliving systems.
- Malaria : A tropical infectious disease, caused by protozoa carried by mosquitoes, which is the world's worst insect vector-borne disease
- Mars (planet) : The fourth planet from the Sun in our solar system; named after the Roman god of war; also known as the "Red Planet".
- Microbial cell and population biology : The study of the cell biology of microorganisms, microbial interactions, signaling and evolutionary adaptations, multicellular-microorganisms and communities such as biofilms.
- Microbiology : The study of microorganisms (overlapping with areas of virology, bacteriology, mycology, and parasitology).
- Organism : An individual living individual: a complex, adaptive physical system that acts a integrated unit that sustains metabolism and reproduces progeny that resemble it.
- Origin of life : How did self-replicating biochemistry and cells arise from the prebiotic world approximately four billion years ago? Aka abiogenesis.
- Planet : A cosmic body orbiting a star.
- Prokaryote phylogeny and evolution : History of the origins of prokaryotes and the evolutionary processes that have affected bacteria.
- Solar system : The sun and the planets orbiting it.
- Taxonomy of Archaea domain : Is a taxonomic list of Archaea domain based on Garrity et al. (2007) and Euzeby (2008).
- Water : A chemical compound with one oxygen and two hydrogen atoms (H20). It is often in a liquid form and makes up the bulk of the oceans, lakes, rivers and living organisms.