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- Arctic Ocean : The sea around the Earth's North pole.
- Augustin-Louis Cauchy : (1789 – 1857) prominent French mathematician, one of the pioneers of rigor in mathematics and complex analysis.
- Biome : Major regional or global biotic community, such as a grassland or desert, characterized chiefly by the dominant forms of plant life and the prevailing climate.
- Climate : The overall weather pattern for an extended period for any defined geographical location which may be over any size of area up to and including the entire Earth.
- Compass : A device which has the basic function of displaying a bearing for navigation.
- Declination : Angular distance to a point on a celestial object, measured north or south from the celestial equator.
- Ecliptic : Great circle that apparent orbit of Sun makes on celestial sphere.
- Geographic Information System : Combined database and mapping system for the capture, storage, and manipulation of geographic data.
- Global Navigation Satellite System : A system which allows small electronic devices to determine their location (Longitude, Latitude, and Altitude) as well as time with an accuracy of up to a few centimetres using time signals transmitted along a line of sight by radio from satellites.
- Kilometre : An SI unit of length, equal to 1000 metres, commonly used for measuring distances on the earth's surface.
- Longitude : Angular distance on the earth's surface, measured east or west from the prime meridian at Greenwich, England, to the meridian passing through a position, expressed in degrees (or hours), minutes, and seconds.
- Mile : A non-SI unit of length, equal to 1.609 kilometres, and equivalent to 5,280 feet.
- Nautical mile : Unit of distance approximately equal to one minute of arc of latitude, now defined as being exactly 1852 metres.
- New Zealand : Country in the South Pacific; constitutional monarchy and a member of the Commonwealth of Nations.
- Spherical polar coordinates : Angular coordinates on a sphere: longitude angle φ, colatitude angle θ
- Sundial : An instrument for measuring time, using the position of the sun in the sky.
- Tropic : Either of two parallels of latitude on the earth, one 23°27′ north of the equator and the other 23°27′ south of the equator, representing the points farthest north and south at which the sun can shine directly overhead.
- Wristwatch : Timepiece designed to be worn around the wrist.
- Yard : A non-SI unit of length, equal to 0.9144 metre, and equivalent to 3 feet.