From Citizendium, the Citizens' Compendium
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- Addiction : Dependence on some agent or practice, with a tendency to increase its use and cause harm.
- Advanced cardiac life support : The use of methods and equipment, beyond the level of cardiopulmonary resuscitation but less than surgical or interventional cardiology, to treat cardiopulmonary arrest.
- Amphetamine : A synthetic central nervous system stimulant which is used, today, to treat limited medical disorders.
- Anaphylaxis : An acute allergic reaction caused by exposure to an antigen to which the patient is hypersensitive.
- Anterior pituitary : Endocrine gland that secretes hormones to regulate stress, growth, metabolism and reproduction.
- Antipsychotic agent : Class of medicines used to treat psychosis and other mental and emotional conditions.
- Arcuate nucleus : An aggregation of neurons in the mediobasal hypothalamus with important roles in appetite regulation and in the control of growth hormone secretion and prolactin secretion.
- Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder : Behavior disorder originating in childhood in which the essential features are signs of developmentally inappropriate inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity.
- Biogenic amine receptor : Cell surface proteins that bind biogenic amines with high affinity and regulate intracellular signals which influence the behavior of cells.
- Brain : The core unit of a central nervous system.
- Caffeine : Xanthine derivative and mild stimulant that elevates cAMP levels in cells by inhibiting phosphodiesterases, commonly found in coffee, tea, and soft drinks.
- Catecholamines : A family of neurotransmitters and hormones, chemically ortho-dihydroxyphenylalkylamines derived from tyrosine, with important members including epinephrine, norepinephrine, and dopamine
- Cocaine : A crystalline tropane alkaloid that is obtained from the leaves of the coca plant, that is both a stimulant of the central nervous system and an appetite suppressant; it is also a local anesthetic primarily used in otolaryngology
- Contrast-induced nephropathy : Acute kidney injury from radiocontrast.
- Dopamine plasma membrane transport protein : A catecholamine plasma membrane transport protein that is a sodium chloride-dependent neurotransmitter symporter located primarily on the plasma membrane of dopaminergic neuron.
- Dopamine receptor : A class of metabotropic G protein-coupled receptors that are prominent in the vertebrate central nervous system (CNS).
- Dopamine uptake inhibitor : A drug that block the transport of dopamine into axon terminals or into storage vesicles within terminals.
- Endocannabinoid system in appetite regulation : Substances produced from within the body which activate cannabinoid receptors and regulate food consumption.
- Epinephrine : A hormone (adrenalin) adrenergic systems-stimulator used in asthma and cardiac failure.
- Hallucinogen : General group of pharmacological agents classed as psychoactive drugs, which can cause subjective changes in perception, thought, emotion and consciousness.
- Hormone : A chemical director of biological activity that travels through some portion of the body as a messenger.
- Julius Axelrod : (30 May 1912 – 29 December 2004) American biochemist whose work was influential in the development of pharmaceuticals.
- List of organic compounds : Add brief definition or description
- Methamphetamine : A psychostimulant and sympathomimetic drug, which enters the brain and triggers a cascading release of dopamine, serotonin and norepinephrine.
- Methylphenidate : The most commonly prescribed psychostimulant and is indicated in the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome and narcolepsy.
- Midodrine : An adrenergic alpha agonist used as a vasoconstrictor agent in the treatment of hypotension.
- Neurotransmitter : A class of chemicals which relay, amplify or modulate electrical signals between a neuron and other cells in the nervous system.
- Prolactin : Hormone secreted from lactotroph cells of the anterior pituitary gland with an essential role in lactation.
- Restless legs syndrome : A disorder characterized by aching or burning sensations in the lower and rarely the upper extremities that occur prior to sleep or may awaken the patient from sleep;Complying with an irresistible urge to move the affected limbs brings temporary relief.
- Schizophrenia : A mental disorder characterized by impaired perception of the individual's environment.
- Synapse : Contact point between neurons and other cells, crucial for nerve signalling
- Vasopressin : A hormone also called (arginine vasopressin, (AVP); formerly known as antidiuretic hormone, ADH), produced in the hypothalamus secreted from the posterior pituitary that causes kidneys to concentrate urine to conserve water, also causes vasoconstriction.
- Vitamin C : Required by a few mammalian species, including humans and higher primates. It is water-soluble and is usually obtained by eating fruits and vegetables; associated with scurvy (hence its chemical name, ascorbic acid).