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- Afghanistan Civil War (1989-1994) : Conflict in Afghanistan between the departure of Soviet forces in 1989 and the taking of control by the Taliban in 1992, with conflict among mujahideen factions.
- Afghanistan : A Islamic republic in Central Asia, with an unstable but elected government; borders China, Iran, Pakistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan
- Al-Qaeda : International islamist terrorist network. Responsible for the 9-11 attack and other terrorist attacks.
- Battle of Tora Bora : A battle of the Afghanistan War (2001-), in which allied special operations forces, principally using Afghan troops, attempted to kill or capture an escaping Osama bin Laden
- Ghilzai : One of the two major tribes of the Pashtun people, rivals of the Durrani who founded the monarchy and retain leadership roles
- Islamic Party of Afghanistan : A Pashtun-dominated Afghan political party, split into factions variously part of the government (Hezb-i-Islam) under Yunis Khalis versus Hezb-i-Islam Gulbuddin under Gulbuddin Hekmatyar (HIG), which cooperates with the Taliban but is also negotiating with the Karzai government
- Kabul : Capital of Afghanistan.
- Khaldan training camp : Located in southeast Afghanistan near Khost, an al-Qaeda training facility, apparently in weapons, tactics and explosives, directed by Abu Zubaydah.
- Khyber pass : A mountain pass on the border between Afghanistan and Pakistan.
- Mujahideen : General term for Muslim "holy warriors", especially in Afghanistan.
- Nangarhar Province : A province on the east of Afghanistan, on the Pakistani frontier, which forms its south and eastern sides; its major internal boundaries are with Kabul Province on its west, Langhman and Kunar Provinces to the north; the capital is Jalalabad, nearest town to the Battle of Tora Bora
- Osama bin Laden : Radical jihadist who, with Ayman al-Zawahiri, founded a group known as al-Qaeda, which is credited with a series of terrorist attacks.
- Pashtun people : An Eastern Iranian ethnic group primarily located in Southern Afghanistan in the Northwest Frontier Province, Federally Administered Tribal Area and Balochistan Province of western Pakistan; language is Pashto
- Provinces of Afghanistan : There are 34 Provinces of Afghanistan.
- Taliban : Salafist Islamic militia, governing Afghanistan 1996–2001; still fighting in Pakistan and Afghanistan.
- Yunis Khalis : An early leader of the mujahideen (1919-2006), whose stronghold was Jalalabad in Nangarhar Province.