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- Afghanistan War (1978-1992) : Add brief definition or description
- Afghanistan War (2001-) : Beginning on October 7, 2001, in response to the 9-11 attacks, military operations against the Taliban and al-Qaeda by United States and NATO forces
- Salafism : A strict branch of Sunni Islam, dedicated to the restoration of the Caliphate, often by means of armed jihad
- Muhammad Omar : Salafist cleric and leader of the Taliban
- Wakil Muttawakil : Former Taliban foreign minister and aide to Mullah Omar before the 9-11 attacks; now in Afghanistan in house arrest and considered a possible moderate Taliban for negotiations
- Al-Qaeda : International islamist terrorist network. Responsible for the 9-11 attack and other terrorist attacks.
- Kandahar : A city in the southeastern part of Aghanistan, the capital of Kandahar Province (the largest in the country), and, during the Taliban rule, their headquarters
- Inter-Services Intelligence : The military intelligence and covert action organization of Pakistan; historically contained strong Islamist elements but also concerned with India-Pakistan security issues
- Hezb-e-Islami Gulbuddin : The faction of the Hezb-e-Islami party in Afghanistan led by Gulbuddin Hekmatyar, after the split with Yunis Khalis; not the current registered Hezb-e-Islami Decision Making Council
- Jalaluddin Haqqani : Commander of Taliban armed forces but also a Pashtun Ghilzai with independent affiliations with Pakistan, both Inter-Service Intelligence and tribal, as well as his home area of Afghanistan
- Malala Yousafzai : Pashtun student from Pakistan, internationally known for being a children's rights and women's activist.