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- 1 Parent topics
- 2 Subtopics
- 3 Other related topics
- Science : The organized body of knowledge based on non–trivial refutable concepts that can be verified or rejected on the base of observation and experimentation
- Social science : Any of a number of academic disciplines which study human social behavior, institutions and relations.
- Language : A type of communication system, commonly used in linguistics, computer science and other fields to refer to different systems, including 'natural language' in humans, programming languages run on computers, and so on. A wider definition of language - what counts as a language and what doesn't - is a difficult philosophical topic, deserving an article in its own right.
- Grammar (linguistics) : The structural rules that govern the composition of sentences, phrases, and words in any language; alternatively, the system of language itself, i.e. the principles common to all languages.
- Natural language : A communication system based on sequences of acoustic, visual or tactile symbols that serve as units of meaning.
- Biolinguistics : An interdisciplinary field that explores human natural language’s fundamental properties, development in individuals, use in thinking and communicating, brain implementation, genetic underpinnings, and evolutionary origins.
- Phonology : In linguistics, the study of the system used to represent language, including sounds in spoken language and hand movements in sign language.
- Syntax : The study of the rules, or 'patterned relations', that govern the way words combine to form phrases and phrases to form sentences.
- Morphology : The study of word structure; the study of such patterns of word-formation across and within languages, and attempts to explicate formal rules reflective of the knowledge of the speakers of those languages.
- Semantics : The subfield of the study of language which focuses on meaning.
- Pragmatics : Branch of linguistics concerned with language in use or the study of meaning as it arises from language occurring in context.
- Phonetics : Study of speech sounds and their perception, production, combination, and description.
Fields of linguistics
- Language acquisition : The study of how language comes to users of first and second languages.
- First language acquisition : Study of the processes through which humans acquire language, specifically first languages, which studies infants' acquisition of their native language.
- Second language acquisition : Process by which people learn a second language in addition to their native language(s), where the language to be learned is often referred to as the 'target language'.
- Language attrition : The loss of a first or second language or a portion of that language by individuals.
- Critical period : Limited time in which an event can occur, usually resulting in some kind of transformation.
- Critical period hypothesis : Hypothesis which claims that there is an ideal 'window' of time to acquire language in a linguistically rich environment, after which this is no longer possible.
- Applied linguistics : The application of linguistic theories to practical issues and problems, such as language learning.
- Clinical linguistics : Add brief definition or description
- Martha Young-Scholten : linguist specialising in the phonology and syntax of second language acquisition (SLA); senior lecturer at the University of Newcastle upon Tyne, UK.
History of linguistics
- History of linguistics : Chronological study of the science which endeavours to describe and explain the human faculty of language.
- Contextual linguistics : Add brief definition or description
Descriptions of language
Attitudes to language and linguistic study
- Linguistic prescriptivism : The laying down or prescribing of normative rules for the use of a language, or the making of recommendations for effective language usage.
- Cognitive science : The scientific study either of mind or intelligence and includes parts of cognitive psychology, linguistics and computer science.
Communication and discourse
- Communication : The set of interactive processes that create shared meaning.
- Stylistics : Add brief definition or description
- Discourse analysis : Add brief definition or description
- Paralanguage : Set of nonphonemic properties of speech, such as speaking tempo, vocal pitch, and intonational contours, that can be used to communicate attitudes or other shades of meaning.
- Speech Recognition : The ability to recognize and understand human speech, especially when done by computers.