- Tigris River : Add brief definition or description
- Euphrates River : Add brief definition or description
- Baghdad : An ancient Persian city on the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers; the capital of modern day Iraq.
- Basra : Major city in south Iraq; the otherwise landlocked country's only port
Formation of modern Iraq
- Ottoman Empire : An empire, informally the Turkish Empire, that dominated most of the Middle East from the 14th to early 20th century.
- Gertrude Bell : (1868-1926) British expert on the Middle East, involved in strategic intelligence for the Arab Revolt (First World War) and had a major influence on the formation of modern Iraq.
- Percy Cox : Add brief definition or description
- Hashemites : A family that traces its lineage to the household of the Prophet Muhammad and back to the Old Testament prophet Abraham, which is a major part of Middle East history and politics; the ruling dynasty of Jordan is Hashemite
- Saddam Hussein : (1937–2006) Deposed and executed ruler of Iraq.
- Iran-Iraq War : War between Iran and Iraq, 1980-1988, with very high casualties on both sides, but an inconclusive result
- Gulf War : The conflict started by the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait in 1990, and ended with the liberation of Kuwait and major damage to Iraqi forces, by a US-led UN coalition in 1991.
- Iraq War : Invasion of Iraq by a coalition of countries, led by the United States, in 2003, and subsequent occupation
- Iran : Country in the Middle East.
- Jordan : An Arab country of the Middle East, landlocked and bordered by Iraq, Israel, Saudi Arabia, Syria, and the West Bank of Palestine
- Kuwait : Country on the Persian Gulf bordering Iraq to the north and Saudi Arabia to the south; population of 2.5 million.
- Saudi Arabia : A country in the Middle East, governed by a monarchy under Islamic law, which includes the most revered sites in Islam, and also dominates the world's oil economy.
- Syria : Country in the Middle East, facing the Mediterranean Sea, and sharing borders with Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon and Turkey.
- Turkey : A secular Islamic republic (population 71.9 million; capital Ankara) extending from Eastern Thrace in Europe across the peninsula of Asia Minor; meets the Black Sea to the north, the Aegean to the west and the Mediterranean to the south; has land borders with Greece and Bulgaria in Europe, and Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Iran, Iraq and Syria.
- United States : Constitutional republic in North America, has major land borders with Mexico and Canada.