Instrumentation for radioactivity/Related Articles
- See also changes related to Instrumentation for radioactivity, or pages that link to Instrumentation for radioactivity or to this page or whose text .
- Ionizing radiation : Subatomic particles or electromagnetic waves that are energetic enough to detach electrons from atoms or molecules, ionizing them.
- Alpha particle : helium nucleus; particle of charge 2e and mass 4 u.
- Beta particle : A high-energy electron or positron emitted, along with a neutrino, by the decay of an atomic nucleus; a form of ionizing radiation
- Neutron : An elementary particle of neutral charge, normally found in the nucleus of chemical elements, but having significant effects when in free flight; the number of neutrons in the nucleus of an element defines its identity as an isotope
- X-ray : An ionizing type of electromagnetic radiation whose absorption or diffraction often used for structural investigations of matter.
- Gamma ray : Penetrating, high-energy electromagnetic radiation emitted from atomic nuclei during nuclear decay.
- Nuclear MASINT : A subdiscipline of measurement and signature intelligence, primarily dealing with the effects of real-time radiation events, such as nuclear explosions, radioactive clouds from accidents or terrorism, etc., or the cumulative effects of radiation, as in radiation embrittlement; closely related to materials MASINT analysis of fallout and irradiated samples
- Ionization detector : A device whose filler changes conductivity, in a measurable way, when struck by ionizing radiation
- Excitation detector : A device or material that emits some form of visible light when struck by ionizing radiation of certain types and energy levels
- Thermoluminescent dosimeter : An excitation detector built from a material that glows with steady visible light when struck by appropriate wavelengths and energies of ionizing radiation; records cumulative rather than instantaneous radiation measurement; alternatively to film badge using chemical radiation detection
- Scintillating material : A material that emits distinct bursts of light when struck by ionizing radiation of certain types and energies
- Solid-state radiation detector : As opposed to scintillating materials, a substance that, when hit by ionizing radiation, produces electrical energy rather than visible light
- Chemical radiation detection : Add brief definition or description
Instruments and techniques
- Film badge : Add brief definition or description
- Gamma spectrometry : Methods in nuclear chemistry and radiation analysis that measure the characteristics of quanta of gamma rays from a source; the analysis is not direct on the gammas, but typically on an effect caused by them, such as the rates and energy distribution of specific gamma quanta impacting on a scintillating material and producing light to be measured
- Geiger counter : Instrument for measuring ionizing radiation, built around a Geiger-Mueller tube, electronics for powering it and counting ionization events, and possibly filters to adjust the energy and type of radiation hitting the detector tube
- Portable ionization detector : Add brief definition or description
- Scintillometer : Instrument for measuring ionizing radiation, built around a scintillating material, electronics for detecting and counting visible light pulses, and possibly filters to adjust the energy and type of radiation hitting the radiation-sensitive material
- Photomultiplier tube : A specialized application device where solid-state devices have not replaced vacuum tubes, which, while bulky, has extremely high performance in the room-temperature detection of light and converting it to electrical signals
- Phosphor : A material that produces visible light when impacted by ionizing radiation, electrons, or other energies outside the visible spectrum; the emission of light may be tailored to have long or short persistence in time
Imaging devices that use radioactivity
- Radiology : A physician specialty with a core competence in obtaining and diagnosing by means of instruments that receive energy transmitted through the body; there are a number of subspecialties.
- Nuclear medicine : That medical specialty, or subspecialty, concerned with diagnosis and treatment using radioisotopes administered to the patient
- Anger camera : A device used to form images from the bursts of light generated by collimated gamma rays striking a scintillating material, typically in nuclear medicine
- Single photon emission computed tomography : A nuclear medicine imaging technique that visualizes the metabolism, or lack thereof, of tissues into which a photon-emitting tracer has been absorbed
- X-ray computed tomography : Three-dimensional medical imaging method, employing tomography created by computer processing.
- Positron emission tomography : A medical imaging technique using compounds labelled with short-lived positron-emitting radionuclides (such as carbon-11, nitrogen-13, oxygen-15 and fluorine-18) to measure cell metabolism.