- Physics : The study of forces and energies in space and time.
- Chemistry : The science of matter, or of the electrical or electrostatical interactions of matter.
- Electromagnetic spectrum : The range of electromagnetic waves covering all frequencies and wavelengths.
- Biomedical imaging : The generation of visual representations of clinically or biologically relevant objects.
- Bremsstrahlung : Electromagnetic radiation produced by the acceleration of a charged particle, such as an electron, when deflected by another charged particle, such as an atomic nucleus.
- X-ray computed tomography : Three-dimensional medical imaging method, employing tomography created by computer processing.
- X-ray diffraction : A non-destructive analytical technique which reveal information about the crystallographic structure, chemical composition, and physical properties of materials and thin films, using x-rays.
- Light : The part of the electromagnetic spectrum visible to a species' biological eye.
- Magnetic resonance imaging : The use of magnetic fields and electromagnetic radiation to visualize internal structures of non-magnetic objects non-destructively.
- Positron emission tomography : A medical imaging technique using compounds labelled with short-lived positron-emitting radionuclides (such as carbon-11, nitrogen-13, oxygen-15 and fluorine-18) to measure cell metabolism.
- Radiotherapy : The use of ionizing radiation to treat malignant neoplasms and some benign conditions.