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- Acetylcholine : A chemical transmitter in both the peripheral nervous system (PNS) and central nervous system (CNS) in many organisms including humans.
- Adenosine triphosphate : A molecule sometimes called the "energy currency" of a cell
- Aerobic organism : An organism that has an oxygen-based metabolism.
- Amino acid : Biochemical with an amino group, a carboxyl group, a hydrogen atom, and a side chain bonded to a central carbon.
- Anabolism : Biological processes that build larger molecules from smaller ones, and increase the size of bones, organs and muscles.
- Beta oxidation : The process by which fatty acids, in the form of Acyl-CoA molecules, are broken down in the mitochondria to generate Acetyl-CoA, the entry molecule for the Krebs Cycle.
- Biochemistry : The chemistry of living things; a field of both biology and chemistry.
- Biology : The science of life — of complex, self-organizing, information-processing systems living in the past, present or future.
- Carbon dioxide : Chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom.
- Catabolism : The metabolic process that breaks down molecules into smaller units.
- Cell (biology) : The basic unit of life, consisting of biochemical networks enclosed by a membrane.
- Cellular respiration : A series of metabolic processes by which living cells produce energy through the oxidation of organic substances.
- Coenzyme A : A coenzyme notable for its role in the synthesis and oxidization of fatty acids, and the oxidation of pyruvate in the citric acid cycle.
- Diabetes mellitus : Relative or absolute lack of insulin leading to uncontrolled carbohydrate metabolism.
- Enzyme : A protein that catalyzes (i.e. accelerate) chemical reactions.
- Eukaryote : An organism that is composed of one or more cells containing cell nuclei.
- Fatty acid metabolism : Oxidative degradation of saturated fatty acids in which two-carbon units are sequentially removed from the molecule with each turn of the cycle, and metabolized so that it can be used as a source of energy in aerobic respiration.
- Fermentation (biochemistry) : The process of deriving energy from the oxidation of organic compounds, such as carbohydrates, using an endogenous electron acceptor, which is usually an organic compound.
- Flavin : A tricyclic biochemical based on pteridine that is derived from the vitamin riboflavin.
- Gluconeogenesis : Formation of glucose, especially by the liver, from noncarbohydrate precursors, such as amino acids, lactate, pyruvate, and the glycerol portion of fats.
- Glucose : A monosaccharide (or simple sugar) and an important carbohydrate in biology, used by the living cell as a source of energy and metabolic intermediate.
- Glycolysis : A biochemical pathway by which a molecule of glucose is oxidized to two molecules of pyruvate.
- Metabolism : The modification of chemical substances by living organisms.
- Microbial metabolism : The means by which a microbe obtains the energy and nutrients (e.g. carbon) it needs to live and propagate.
- Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine : Award conferred once a year since 1901 by the Swedish Karolinska Institute, for physiology or medicine.
- Protein : A polymer of amino acids; basic building block of living systems.
- Urea cycle : Cycle of biochemical reactions occurring in many animals that produces urea (NH2)2CO from ammonia (NH3), with the key reaction being the hydrolysis of arginine by arginase to ornithine and urea.