From Citizendium, the Citizens' Compendium
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- Bacterial cell structure : Morphological and genetic features of unicellular prokaryotic organisms characterized by the lack of a membrane-bound nucleus and membrane-bound organelles.
- Bacteria : A major group of single-celled microorganisms.
- Cell (biology) : The basic unit of life, consisting of biochemical networks enclosed by a membrane.
- Cell cycle : Is the progression of events within a eukaryotic cell between cell divisions.
- Chemical thermodynamics : The study of the interrelation of heat and work with chemical reactions or with physical changes of state within the confines of the laws of thermodynamics.
- Chloroplast : The green organelles found in many higher plant cells and protists. Internal thylakoid membranes contain chlorophyll where photosynthesis takes place.
- Cytoskeleton : The mechanical scaffold, made up of fibrous proteins, determining the shape of a cell.
- Endosymbiotic theory : Theory on the origins of mitochondria and plastids (e.g. chloroplasts), which are organelles of eukaryotic cells.
- Eukaryota : is a domain formed by all living beings, from unicellular to very complex individuals with many different types of cells carrying particular functions, that are always constituted by cells where there is a nucleus, with various organelles, enclosed by a membrane that separates its content from the surrounding cytoplasm.
- Evolution : A change over time in the proportions of individual organisms differing genetically.
- Golgi apparatus : An organelle in eukaryotic cells that modifies many proteins and lipids from the endoplasmic reticulum; it is named after Camillo Golgi who discovered it in 1898.
- Horizontal gene transfer in plants : Any process in which an organism transfers genetic material (i.e. DNA) to another cell that is not its cellular offspring, as distinct from vertical gene transfer where genes are inherited from parents or ancestors in a lineage of cellular organisms.
- Kingdom (biology) : The second highest level taxon of organisms in scientific classification and biological taxonomy.
- Maximum life span : Measure of the maximum amount of time one or more members of a group has been observed to survive between birth and death.
- Microbial metabolism : The means by which a microbe obtains the energy and nutrients (e.g. carbon) it needs to live and propagate.
- Microorganism : A 'germ', an organism that is too small to be seen individually with the naked eye.
- Mitochondrion : Structure, function, life cycle and evolutionary theories involving the origins and role of the mitochondrion.
- Neuron : An excitable cell that is specialized to conduct nerve impulses.
- Photosynthesis : The process by which an organism captures and stores energy from sunlight, energy it uses to power its cellular activities.
- Plant (organism) : A eukaryotic organism, grouped into the kingdom Plantae, that typically synthesizes nutrients through photosynthesis and possesses the inability to voluntarily move.
- Red blood cells : Also called erythrocytes; a type of disc-shaped blood cell that contain hemoglobin, and the body's principal means of delivering oxygen to the body's cells via the blood, and the removal of carbon dioxide wastes that result from metabolism.