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- Ancien Régime : The aristocratic social and political order of France between the 14th and 18th centuries under the Valois and Bourbon dynasties.
- André-Marie Ampère : (Lyons 20 January, 1775 – Marseilles 10 June, 1836) French physicist and mathematician best known for his work in electricity and magnetism.
- Annales School : Historiography style developed by 20th century French historians dealing primarily with pre-French Revolution times.
- Antoine-Laurent Lavoisier : Eminent late 18th century French chemist.
- Atheism : Absence of belief in any god or other supernatural beings; distinct from antitheism, or opposition to religion, and agnosticism, the position that one cannot know whether such beings exist.
- Augustin-Louis Cauchy : (1789 – 1857) prominent French mathematician, one of the pioneers of rigor in mathematics and complex analysis.
- Charles-Augustin de Coulomb : (Angoulême June 14, 1736 – Paris August 23, 1806) French physicist known for formulating a law for the force between two electrically charged bodies.
- Civil society : The space for social activity outside the market, state and household; the arena of uncoerced collective action around shared interests, purposes and values.
- Deism : A religious philosophy which holds that religious beliefs must be founded on human reason and observed features of the natural world, and that these sources reveal the existence of a God or supreme being.
- Democratic-Republican Party : A United States political party during the First Party System, 1792-1820s, founded by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison.
- Dugald Stewart : (1753 - 1828) Scottish philosopher of the "common-sense" school who played a major role in making the "Scottish philosophy" predominant in 19th century Europe; known for his theory of taste.
- Edmund Burke : (1729–97) British political thinker who opposed the French Revolution and developed a coherent conservative philosophy.
- Enlightenment : In religion, the point at which an aspirant breaks through the barrier of temporal existence and has a direct experience of God. In history, the enlightenment was a philosophical movement of the 18th century that advocated the use of reason as the basis for belief.
- Federalist Party : An American political party during the First Party System, in the period 1791 to 1816, with remnants lasting into the 1820s.
- Fernand Braudel : The foremost French historian of the postwar (WWII) era, and a leader of the Annales School.
- First Party System : U.S. political system (1792-early 1820s) pitting Alexander Hamilton's Federalist Party against the Democratic-Republican Party of Thomas Jefferson and James Madison.
- France, history : Add brief definition or description
- France : Western European republic (population c. 64.1 million; capital Paris) extending across Europe from the English Channel in the north-west to the Mediterranean in the south-east; bounded by Belgium, Luxembourg, Germany, Switzerland, Italy, Monaco, Andorra and Spain; founding member of the European Union. Colonial power in Southeast Asia until 1954.
- French cuisine : Style of preparing meals that evolved in France and is now known and practiced worldwide.
- French in Canada : The linguistic heritage resulting from French colonization of parts of Canada.
- French republican calendar : Calendar instituted by the National Convention after the French Revolution, as a reform of the Gregorian calendar, that would help to divorce the new republic from its Catholic predecessor.
- George III : King of Great Britain and Ireland from 1760-1820, between George II and George IV.
- Georges Cuvier : (1769 - 1832) vertebrate paleontologist and comparative anatomist who established the extinction of past lifeforms as an accepted scientific fact.
- Hannah Arendt : (1906–1975) Political philosopher, political scientist, and commentator; a German ancestry to the U.S.; major academic works include The Origins of Totalitarianism, The Human Condition, On Revolution and The Life of the Mind; well known for book Eichmann in Jerusalem containing the phrase "the banality of evil"
- Henry Mackenzie : (1745 - 1831), Scottish writer, nicknamed 'The Man of Feeling' after the title of his best known novel.
- Honor Harrington : The central character in an extensive science fiction series created by David Weber, with considerable personality resemblances, although far higher technology, to Horatio Hornblower
- Insurgency : A wide range of political and military actions intended to change a government, through means considered illegal by that government.
- Jean-Jacques Rousseau : (1712–1778) French author and philosopher.
- Kilogram : The kilogram is the basic unit of mass in the International System of Units (SI, metric system).
- Law : Body of rules of conduct of binding legal force and effect, prescribed, recognized, and enforced by a controlling authority.
- Liberalism : Economic and political doctrine advocating free enterprise, free competition and free will.
- Louis XVI : King of France executed in 1792 during the French Revolution; husband of Marie Antoinette.
- Louis XV : (1710-1774), King of France (1715-1774), was the dominant political figure during the Ancien Régime.
- Maximilien Robespierre : (6 May 1758 – 28 July 1794) One of the most famous (or infamous, depending on perspective) leaders of the French Revolution.
- Metre (unit) : Unit of length; one of the seven SI base units.
- Napoleon : Noted military commander, world historic figure and dictator of France from 1799 to 1814
- Netherlands, history : Add brief definition or description
- Papacy : Head of the Roman Catholic Church.
- Paris : Capital of France, population about 2,200,000.
- Political philosophy : Branch of philosophy that deals with fundamental questions about politics.
- Project Muse : A subscription-based academic journals site operated by the Johns Hopkins University Press.
- Public : Shared by, open or available to everyone, well or generally known, universally available or without limit, done or made on behalf of the community as a whole, open to general or unlimited viewing or disclosure, frequented by large numbers of people or for general use, or places generally open or visible to all pertaining to official matters or maintained at taxpayer expense.
- René Descartes : French 17th-century philosopher, mathematician and scientist, author of the Discourse on Method.
- Republicanism : The political ideology of a nation as a republic, with an emphasis on liberty, rule by the people, and the civic virtue practiced by citizens.
- Sri Aurobindo : (1872–1950) Influential Indian philosopher, yogin and nationalist, developer of Integral consciousness theory and the Integral movement.
- Sri Lanka, history : The history of Sri Lanka, formerly known as Ceylon.
- Strasbourg : Capital of Alsace in France.
- Terrorism : An act, with targets including civilians or civilian infrastructure, intended to create an atmosphere of fear in order to obtain a political objective.
- The Enlightenment : An 18th-century movement in Western philosophy and intellectual life generally, that emphasized the power or reason and science to understand and reform the world.
- Thomas Muir : (1765 – 1799) Scottish political reformer, and the most notable victim of political repression in the years after the French Revolution.
- Thomas Paine : (1737-1809) English writer, intellectual and revolutionary whose works were influential during the Enlightenment in the United States and Europe.
- U.S. Demographic History : Historic trends in population growth, geographical distribution by states and urban-rural, internal migration, and components of change (births, deaths, immigration), as well as race and ethnicity, and population policy as they relate to the United States.
- Voltaire's Socrates (play) : A satirical play in three acts that concerns itself with Socrates and the events just before his death during his trial.