From Citizendium, the Citizens' Compendium
- 1 Parent topics
- 2 Subtopics
- 2.1 Regions
- 2.2 International relations
- 2.3 Heads of State
- 2.4 Prime Ministers
- 2.5 Culture
- 2.6 History
- 2.7 Military
- 3 Other related topics
- 4 Bot-suggested topics
- Europe : Sixth largest continent; area 10,000,000 km2; pop. 720,000,000
- Auvergne : Region of southwestern Europe, politically in France and culturally in Occitania.
- Brittany : Brittany (Bretagne in French) is the most westerly province of Metropolitan France, previously known as Armorica (Armorique), with its own culture and language (Breton)
- U.S. Ambassador to France : Charles Rivkin, a financial and business executive with a degree in international relations; since 1968, he has been involved in presenting U.S. State Department’s “Rivkin Award,” honoring “intellectual courage and constructive dissent” by Foreign Service Officers
- French Ambassador to the U.S. : Add brief definition or description
Heads of State
- President of France : French head of state; office includes wide-ranging powers, including the appointment of the Prime Minister and the promulgation of laws (held by Emmanuel Macron since May 2017).
- Emperor of the French : Add brief definition or description
- Monarchy of France : Add brief definition or description
- Vincent Auriol : Add brief definition or description
- René Coty : Add brief definition or description
- French cuisine : Style of preparing meals that evolved in France and is now known and practiced worldwide.
- French language : A Romance language spoken in northwestern Europe (mainly in France, Belgium, Switzerland), in Canada and in many other countries.
- French literature : The novels, poetry, and plays written in the French language from the earliest stages until the present day
- Joan of Arc, Rehabilitation trial : Add brief definition or description
- Joan of Arc, Trial : Add brief definition or description
- Joan of Arc, memory of : An examination of the wide range of views and interpretations regarding Joan of Arc's life as seen in the eyes of her perceivers over the centuries.
- Joan of Arc : A French peasant girl (ca. 1412 – 1431) who led her nation's armies during the Hundred Years' War and became a national heroine and saint.
First World War
- Ferdinand Foch : Add brief definition or description
- Second Battle of Ypres : A 1915 battle of the First World War, in which Germany launched the first large-scale chemical warfare attack against France
Second World War
- Armée de l'Air : The air force of France
- Battle of France : Add brief definition or description
- Battle of Normandy : Often oversimplified as "D-Day", the three-month campaign starting with the June 6, 1944 landings on the beaches of occupied France, lasted for three months, until the liberation of the last Norman commune on 25 August 1944
- French Resistance : Add brief definition or description
- Henri Petain : Add brief definition or description
- Vichy France : After the fall of France in 1940, part of the south kept a German-approved government that maintained limited autonomy within the Tripartite Pact structure. It was opposed by resistance groups. In particular, Vichy retained authority, until March 1945, over French Indochina.
- Klaus Barbie : Head the Nazi Gestapo in Lyon, France during World War II; sentenced to life in prison for war crimes.
- Charles de Gaulle : French military and political leader who died in 1970.
- Jacques Leclerc : (1902—1947) Free French general, led forces in Equatorial Africa, Tunisia, the liberation of Paris, the Far East and North Africa.
- Indochina and the Second World War : Between 1936 and 1947, external events, related to the Second World War, which affected French Indochina
- Indochina : Minimally, the French colony that contained the regions of Tonkin, Annam, and Cochinchina, which, with the Central Highlands, became modern Vietnam
- Indochinese revolution : The period, within the Wars of Vietnam, 1858-1987, between which France reasserted its colonial authority over Indochina in 1945, created a proto-state of Vietnam under a provisional government during which there was increasing insurgency, fought conventionally combat with the Viet Minh starting in 1950, and ended in 1954. The end, militarily, involved the defeat of French forces at Dien Bien Phu and. politically, with the creation of North Vietnam and South Vietnam by the Geneva accords
- Henri Navarre : General in the French Army during the Second World War, and last commander of French forces in French Indochina; responsible for creating the Dien Bien Phu base
- Paul Mus : A French expert (1902-1969) on Vietnam, born in French Indochina, who advised French leaders on dealing with nationalism, was an emissary to Ho Chi Minh, and continued teaching and analysis of Vietnam.
- Jean Sainteny : A French businessman, Resistance officer, politician and diplomat, who was was a trusted intermediary among many Vietnamese and French factions; he was the host for the 1969 secret peace talks between the U.S. and Democratic Republic of Vietnam
- Battle of Vinh Yen : A battle of the Indochinese revolution, with disastrous results for the Viet Minh, who attacked French positions, without cover, in range of air attack and naval gunfire
- Battle of Na San : A successful yet modest 1952 operation conducted by French paratroopers, who seized a forward base, and, under optimal conditions, formed a rock of a defense against which Viet Minh smashed themselves. It may have set unrealistic expectations for Dien Bien Phu
- Battle of Dien Bien Phu : Site in northern Vietnam of a 1954 decisive battle that soon forced France to relinquish control of colonial Indochina.
- Algerian War : (1954-1962) Fought by Algerians seeking independence from French colonial rule.
- Paul Trinquier : Add brief definition or description
- 1956 Suez Crisis : Add brief definition or description
- French nuclear program : Civilian and military nuclear programs of France, a declared nuclear weapons power
- Gulf War : The conflict started by the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait in 1990, and ended with the liberation of Kuwait and major damage to Iraqi forces, by a US-led UN coalition in 1991.
- French in Canada : The linguistic heritage resulting from French colonization of parts of Canada.
- Francophobia : Hostility toward or distrust of French people, French culture, and/or France in general.
- Francoprovençal language : Romance language spoken in central eastern France, western Switzerland and northwestern Italy.
- Islamophobia : An intense suspicion of all who practice Islam, tending to associate both peaceful and militant Muslims with Jihadist and Islamist views
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- Alps : European mountain range stretching from Austria and Slovenia to Switzerland and France; contains Mont Blanc, the highest point of which is 4,808 meters.
- Ancient Celtic music : The music and instruments of the ancient Celts until late Antiquity.
- Auvergne : Region of southwestern Europe, politically in France and culturally in Occitania.
- Baccalauréat : An academic degree which French students sit for at the end of the lycée (secondary school).
- Blaise Pascal : French mathematician, physicist, and philosopher.
- Brenne Natural Regional Park : Natural Park in Berry and Limousin (France).
- Brest, Brittany : City in western Brittany (France), on the Atlantic Ocean.
- Breton language : Celtic language spoken in Brittany.
- Camargue Natural Regional Park : Natural Park in Camargue (Provence, France), at the junction of the Rhone River and the Mediterranean Sea.
- Cardinal Mazarin : (1602-1661) A French cardinal and statesman who controlled the French government while Louis XIV was young.
- Catalan Countries : Cultural territory of southwestern Europe where Catalan is the native language.
- Catalan language : A Romance language spoken in the Catalan Countries (eastern Spain, Andorra, parts of France and Sardinia).
- Catalog of political philosophers : Add brief definition or description
- Causses du Quercy Natural Regional Park : Natural park of Quercy (Guyenne, France) in the Massif Central mountains.
- Champagne : A sparkling wine produced in the French region of the same name.
- Charles Messier : (1730 - 1817) French astronomer, best known for his catalogue of unusual objects.
- Claude Lévi-Strauss : French anthropologist who developed structural anthropology as a method of understanding human society and culture.
- Cognac (brandy) : Alcoholic beverage originating from the French region Charente (around the town Cognac) and distilled from grape wine.
- County of Nice : A historical region of France, located in the south-eastern part, around the city of Nice.
- Cévennes National Park : Natural park of Languedoc (France), in the southern Massif Central mountains.
- Côte d'Azur : Tourist region along the Mediterranean Sea, in eastern Provence (France) and Monaco.
- DEUG : or Diplôme d'études universitaires générales, is a French diploma.
- Edmond François Valentin About : (February 14, 1828 – January 16, 1885) was a French novelist, publicist, and journalist.
- European Union : Political and economic association of 28 European states.
- France, history : Add brief definition or description
- Franc : The currency of Switzerland and Liechtenstein; it was was also the name given to the currencies of France, Belgium and Luxembourg before they adopted the euro.
- French support for Iraq during the Iran-Iraq war : French technical assistance and sales of military and dual-use equipment, beginning in approximately 1975, to Iraq, and continuing through the Iran-Iraq War; France and the Soviet Union were the leading military suppliers to Iraq
- Henri Fayol : (1841—1925) a French management theorist.
- Jacques Derrida : (July 15 1930–October 8 2004) An Algerian-born French philosopher.
- Jean-Luc Godard : A French filmmaker who rose to prominence in the 1960s and has been active ever since.
- Jules Verne : (1828-1905) French author and science-fiction pioneer, some of whose novels involved travel through outer space and under water before technology had made these possible, and whose work has been widely translated and made into a number of films.
- Louis XV : (1710-1774), King of France (1715-1774), was the dominant political figure during the Ancien Régime.
- Lyonnaise potatoes : A well-known dish of sliced potatoes and onions that apparently originated in France.
- Marseille : Capital city of Provence, in southern France, on the Mediterranean Sea.
- Mercantour National Park : Natural park in the far southern Alps (Provence, France).
- Molière : (January 15, 1622 – February 17, 1673) French 17th-century playwright and actor, author of many comedies.
- Mâcon : A town in the Burgundy region of France, population 35,393.
- Nice : City of Provence-Alpes-Côte-d'Azur, in France, on the Mediterranean Sea.
- Normandy : Province of France
- Occitania : Area of southwestern Europe were the Occitan language is spoken.
- Odo, Count of Paris : (c. 856 - January 1, 898) King of the Franks (888 - 898) and considered the first French king.
- Ordesa and Monte Perdido National Park : Natural park in the Pyrenees (Aragon, Spain).
- Paris : Capital of France, population about 2,200,000.
- Pierre Molinier : (13 April 1900 - 3 March 1976) French surrealist painter, photographer, and maker of 'fetishistic objects'.
- Piquet : A two-handed card game played with 32 cards that originated in France around 1500.
- Port-Cros : Island of the Mediterranean belonging to the Hyères Islands, in Provence (France).
- Provence : Region of southwestern Europe, politically in France and culturally in Occitania, stretching from the Rhone to the Alps along the Mediterranean Sea.
- Pyrenees National Park : Natural park in the Pyrenees (Gascony and Bearn, France).
- Queyras Natural Regional Park : Natural park in the southern Alps (Provence, France).
- René Descartes : French 17th-century philosopher, mathematician and scientist, author of the Discourse on Method.
- Research vessel Astrolabe : French icebreaker engaged in research, in Antarctic waters.
- Rhine : A large river (ca 1,320 km) that drains portions of northern Europe, flowing from south-eastern Switzerland through Germany and the Netherlands, into the North Sea.
- River Seine : The Seine is a large river in Northern Europe.
- Romance languages : Branch of the Indo-European language family, originally spoken in southern, eastern and western Europe and descended from Vulgar Latin, the language of the Ancient Romans; includes modern Spanish, Portuguese, French, Italian and Romanian.
- Service de Documentation Exterieure et de Contre-Espionage : The civilian external intelligence and covert action organization of France
- Strasbourg : Capital of Alsace in France.
- Tartiflette : A hearty cheese and potato dish from the Savoie region of France created in the 1980s.
- Tonkin : The northernmost part of Vietnam, located on the fertile delta of the Red River.
- Tour de France : An annual multi-stage, multi-day bicycle race of about 3,500km taking place mostly in France.
- Voltaire : The pen-name of François-Marie Arouet (1694-1778), a French writer and philosopher, who was one of the leading figures of The Enlightenment.
- Écrins National Park : Natural park in the southern Alps (Provence, France).
- Édouard Daladier : The Prime Minister of France on the outbreak of World War II.